Santa Maria Maggiore is a 5th century papal basilica with a postal address at Via Liberiana 27, which is in the rione Monti. The main entrance is on the Piazza di Santa Maria Maggiore. Pictures of the basilica on Wikimedia Commons are here. An English Wikipedia article is here.
The dedication is to the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Alternative names to be found in the sources are Santa Maria della Neve (Our Lady of the Snow) after the foundation legend (see below), and Santa Maria ad Praesepem after the relic of the manger (presepe) which is enshrined here.
The traditional English version of the name is "St Mary Major". This is confusing to many, but it simply means that this is Rome's principal church dedicated to Our Lady (there are very many others).
For historical reasons (see below), the appellation "Liberian Basilica" is also to be found.
The basilica is regarded as the most important church worldwide dedicated to Our Lady.
It is served and administered by a Chapter of Canons headed by a cardinal, and has the King of Spain as its secular protector and patron. Unlike the canons at the Lateran, those here are secular priests and not religious.
The parish (only created in 1824) has been appropriated to the church of Santi Vito e Modesto nearby, so the basilica is no longer parochial.
Since 1929, the basilica has been "extraterritorial". This means that it is part of Italy, but is completely in the care of the Vatican City with the same legal status as a foreign embassy.
This church is on the ancient Cispius, the main summit of the Esquiline Hill, which in ancient times was not a heavily built-up area.
It was not one of the original tituli, those places of worship putatively descending from the original house-churches used by Rome's Christians in the first two centuries AD. Instead, it was a 4th century foundation. Further, pace earlier publications, it was not on the site of the Macellum Liviae (a known ancient market building in the locality). Also, the 4th century BC temple of Juno Lucina, proposed as a progenitor of the cult of Our Lady (this goddess was a protectress of pregnant women), was not near here but near the church of San Francesco di Paola.
Archaeological investigations under the basilica between 1966 and 1971 revealed a 1st century building made up of a large courtyard, a porticus or colonnade and some ancillary rooms. This measured some 37 by 30 metres, and was six metres below floor level. The entrance was under the present apse of the basilica. On epigraphic evidence, it seems to have belonged to a villa complex of the Neratii family.
The walls were originally revetted in marble, but at some stage in the early 4th century this was removed and replaced with a series of frescoes representing a calendar with a bucolic scene for each month. Then, the fresco work was painted over with a decoration of imitation marble by the third quarter of the 4th century at the latest.
If the conclusion of the archaeologists as regards the last point is correct, then this ancient edifice seems to have post-dated the foundation of the first church traditionally located here. This is an important point.
According to the Liber Pontificalis, this first church (the so-called Basilica Liberiana or "Liberian Basilica") was founded in the 350s by Pope Liberius. However, the ancient building that the archaeologists found in 1966 was not a basilica -and so it seems that Liberius did not build it on the site of the present church. It might have been immediately to one side, or somewhere in the locality, and only some future lucky archaeological discovery would solve the problem of its location.
A complication is that archaeological investigations under the present apse from 1931 to 1933 revealed foundations in opus vittatum, which at the time were interpreted as belonging to the Liberian Basilica. Another look was taken in 1960, and it seems that the old foundations belong to the apse of Sixtus III.
A further complication is that the name Basilica Sicinini occurs in early sources, such as Ammianus Marcellinus. This seems to refer to an otherwise unknown patron or benefactor called Sicininus. (There is, however, a minority view that the name referred to Santa Maria in Trastevere.)
According to the legend, the work was financed by a Roman patrician John, and his wife. They were childless, and so had decided to leave their fortune to the Blessed Virgin. She appeared to them in a dream, and told them to build a church in her honour on a site outlined by a miraculous snowfall -this was in August (traditionally in 358). Such a patch of snow was found on the summit of the Esquiline the following morning, and so the church was built.
This is a charming story, but unfortunately there is no trace of it before the second millennium. The first direct documentary reference to it dates from 1288.
A modern surmise is that the legend's odd detail about the snow derived ultimately from the memory of a violent and localised downpour of hail from a severe August thunderstorm. This is entirely possible, since Rome suffers thunderstorms serious enough to spawn tornadoes (there's a video of one here).
The death of Pope Liberius caused a civil war among Roman Christians, because no agreed procedure for electing a pope had yet been worked out. Pope St Damasus I and a rival called Ursicinus were elected, and their supporters started to kill each other. Damasus obtained the support of the Imperial government and the possession of the Lateran, but Ursicinus had a strong following in the city and set up a rival court in the Liberian Basilica. After he refused the emperor's order to vacate, the partisans of Damasus laid siege to the basilica and killed over a hundred people inside it. Apparently the besiegers got onto the roof, ripped off the tiles and pelted those inside with them.
There is no record of the church after that, and after such destruction and desecration it might have been abandoned.
Pope Sixtus III built a new church here to commemorate the declaration at the Council of Ephesus in 431 that Our Lady was Mother of God (Theotokos). The nave of this survives structurally intact, and has original mosaic decoration.
It was the first church dedicated to Our Lady in Rome, pre-dating Santa Maria Antiqua by about a century. As such, its original name was simply Sanctae Mariae.
It is not known how or when the relic of Christ's manger arrived here. In a recording of a donation to the church by one Flavia Xantippa in the 6th century, the name ad Praesepem first appears. The relic was provided with a replica Grotto of Bethlehem, which is thought to have been excavated outside the basilica at its far right hand side (where the Cappella Sistina is now) and provided with an external oratory. Also, it appears that the relics of St Jerome were brought here from Bethlehem and enshrined in the same place; unusually, they have since been mislaid although it is claimed that they are still here "somewhere".
Given the presence nearby of the pilgrimage basilica of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, then simply called "Jerusalem", it seems persuasive that this church was set up as a Roman "Bethlehem". The Oratory of the Grotto was certainly extant by the mid 8th century, although it would not have had an altar then and so was not a chapel. It was mentioned in a Vita of St Winibald, who was in Rome for two years from 721.
The relic of the manger is referred to in Italian as La Sacra Culla. If you are not very sure of your spoken grasp of the language, be careful of this phrase. There is a centuries-old Roman joke originating in the basilica, concerning an English tourist who asked about the Sacro Culo -which means "Holy Arse".
Rome's dignity as a great city came to an end in circumstances that remain very obscure, but the old idea that the barbarian sacks of the 5th century destroyed its civic identity is now discredited. The Senate and city government continued until the early 7th century. However, one change in circumstances massively altered the surroundings of the basilica. The collapse of the aqueducts meant that only those who able to afford the digging of deep wells could continue to live on the hills, so almost all of the surviving population had migrated down to the Tiber flood-plain and neighbouring small valleys by the 8th century. The vacated land was given over to vineyards (drinking well and river water was very unhealthy) and also monasteries.
The basilica, now ex-urban, became the focus of a monastic colony comprising several monasteries in the last quarter of the first millennium. Many, if not most, of the original monks were refugees from the Iconoclast persecutions in the Byzantine Empire and from the conquests of Islam, and so worshipped in the Eastern rites. The church of Sant'Antonio Abate nearby is the sole survivor of these monasteries, which became important in the 8th century. The basilicas of the Lateran and St Peter's also attracted monasteries in the same way.
The monks at the time would have had liturgical duties in the basilica, but the church itself never became monastic.
(The old tituli of Santa Prassede and Santa Pudenziana in the vicinity also became monastic, the former still functioning as a Vallumbrosan monastery and the latter as a Cistercian monastery until the 19th century.)
Setting of mediaeval basilica
The basilica is now the centre of a system of major streets, but this was not the case in the Middle Ages. By the time the city had settled into its mediaeval built-up area, around the beginning of the 11th century, the ancient street plan around the church had been abandoned and become countryside. Before the Renaissance, the basilica was not on the road to anywhere. The main road of the Via Tiburtina ran from the Suburra neighbourhood along the present Via in Selci (the ancient Clivus Suburanus), through the Arch of Gallienus and so to the Porta Tiburtina and San Lorenzo fuori le Mura. The basilica had a short access drive running south past Santa Prassede to join this road. At the Trofei di Mario was an important road junction, with side roads going off to the Porta Pia, Porta Maggiore and the Lateran, and the last was the only route from the basilica to the Lateran.
The ancient Vicus Patricius, now the Via Urbana, also survived in use in the Middle Ages as a direct route from the Suburra past Santa Pudenziana to the Porta Pia, and there would have been another short road linking the basilica to this. Before it became the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, the massive ruin of the Baths of Diocletian was the haunt of wild animals and robbers.
Fabric of original basilica
Up to the early 9th century, it is thought that the church was much as Pope Sixtus had left it. That is, it was of basilical form with a central nave and side aisles, and a semi-circular apsidal sanctuary at the end of the central nave. There were no side chapels then (apart from the detached Oratory of Bethlehem), and also no transept.
The side aisles were separated from the central nave by two rows of ancient columns of differing sizes and lengths, a total of forty supporting two horizontal entablatures (these columns were subsequently got at by restorers and made uniform). There was a round-headed window above each gap between columns, a total of twenty-one in each nave side wall (half of these were later blocked). The apse originally had five windows.
Mosaics embellished the nave side walls between the entablature and the windows, and over the triumphal arch of the apse (these survive). Further mosaics were in the apse conch and on the counterfaçade (these do not). It is on record that the counterfaçade mosaic incorporated a long dedicatory epigraph destroyed in the 18th century, similar to a surviving one at Santa Sabina.
The original floor was made of scavenged marble revetting slabs, laid irregularly. It is still there, only about 5 cm below the Cosmatesque floor which was laid on top of it.
Documentary evidence also exists that there was an atrium courtyard in front of the entrance originally, such as the other three major basilicas certainly had. The nearby San Clemente has a very good example.
Early middle ages
Alterations to the original fabric began with Pope Paschal I (817-24), who re-arranged the sanctuary. He provided a new high altar with eight steps in porphyry, over a devotional crypt or confessio. Also, the bishop's throne was moved back from the centre of the apse to the far point in its curve. Further, the pope arranged for an odd architectural addition to the apse, described as a porticus or gallery for lady patricians (the technical term is matroneum), from which they could allegedly hear everything that the pope said to his ministers while seated on his throne in the curve of the apse. The architectural arrangement might have been like that to be found now at Sant'Anna al Laterano.
This pope also made major interventions at the nearby Santa Prassede, and you can see him depicted in the main mosaic there.
The church emerges into mediaeval history when Pope St Gregory VII was kidnapped there while celebrating Mass in 1075, by a crew of rebel citizens led by one Cencio I Frangipane. He was rescued the next day. This is an early hint of a mediaeval attitude among ordinary Romans that the basilica belonged especially to them, since Pope Sixtus allegedly built it for them (there is an epigraph in the apse mosaic that supports this view).
The kidnapping was on Christmas Eve, and the pope was celebrating the Vigil Mass of the Nativity in the Oratory of the Grotto. This is the first evidence of a tradition that continued until the 19th century.
In the reign of Pope Eugene III (1145-53), a new external entrance loggia was added with a single-pitched roof on eight Ionic columns arranged in pairs. Also, the extant Cosmatesque pavement was laid in the nave. The names of the patrons of the latter are recorded: Scoto and Giovanni di Paparone. A schola cantorum or choir enclosure was provided for the far end of the nave, together with a pair of ambones or pulpits halfway down the nave for the proclamation of Scripture (a surviving pair is at San Lorenzo fuori le Mura). These lost items also had Cosmatesque decoration.
The external Oratory of Bethlehem was rebuilt on the orders of Pope Innocent III (1198-1216), becoming the Chapel of the Manger (Cappella del Presepe) on the site of the present Cappella Sistina.
Between 1256 and 1259, two Gothic shrines were erected either side of the sanctuary. The left hand one was sponsored by the Senate and People of Rome (Senatus Populusque Romanus -SPQR), and was for the famous and venerated icon of Our Lady, Salus Populi Romani. The other one was donated by Giacomo and Vinia Capocci, and was used for exhibiting relics for veneration. It was known as the Tabernacolo delle Reliquie.
The icon was probably originally painted for the basilica in the 12th century, although an 8th century Byzantine provenance has also been claimed. A tradition grew up that it had been painted by St Luke, but this derives from the legend of the original icon of the Theotokos Hodegetria at Constantinople.
There was a major intervention under Pope Nicholas IV (1288-92), who demolished and rebuilt the apse of the church. This got rid of Paschal's matroneum. A slightly larger new apse was provided, not circular but polygonal with five sides and with four windows pointed in the Gothic style. A transept was erected immediately in front of the apse, slightly wider than the combined nave and aisles.
The new apse conch was provided with a magnificent mosaic, which survives. Also, the entrance façade over the loggia was embellished with mosaics as part of the same project. The transept was apparently going to receive a fresco cycle, but work was interrupted. A small part of the decoration survives high up in the far left hand corner, and features tondi with portraits of saints and prophets. The artist is unknown. A fragment of a scene of the Creation of Adam suggests that the left hand end of the transept was to be illustrated with scenes from the Old Testament, and the opposite end with some from the New.
The Chapel of the Manger was also re-fitted and embellished by Arnolfo di Cambio. This widely admired work was later destroyed accidentally, but some crib figures survive. It had a vault in mosaic, and a Cosmatesque floor and fittings.
As the "People's Basilica", the church was the setting for the coronation of Cola di Rienzo as Tribune of Rome after he briefly succeeded in overthrowing the papal government on behalf of the citizens in 1347. The popes were residing at Avignon at the time, and law and order in Rome had collapsed. The abbot of San Paolo fuori le Mura was nominally in charge, but in practice the local nobility were terrorising and exploiting the population.
The church was damaged in an earthquake in the following year, and restored by 1377. The right hand campanile was damaged and became dangerous, and so was rebuilt by Pope Gregory XI on his return to Rome from Avignon. This is over the first bay of the right hand side aisle.
There was, however, also a second campanile, over the corresponding bay of the left hand aisle -hence the church façade used flanked by two campanili. However, this second one was much less impressive. It was a brick tower reaching to just below the roofline of the façade, followed by a bellchamber with three arched openings on each face. It has a little pedimented kiosk on top by the start of the 17th century, but was destroyed in the 18th century restoration. (It is thought that the original pair of campanili was erected in the 12th century, but the first documentary reference to bells dates to the late 13th century.)
Up to the 15th century, the roofs of the nave and aisles in the interior were open. In 1455, Pope Callixtus III had the central nave covered by a flat coffered wooden ceiling allegedly designed by Giuliano da Sangallo, which would have been amazing since he was only ten at the time. The story is that the later gilding was done using the first shipment of gold to Spain from the conquered Inca Empire, presented to Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503) by Ferdinand and Isabella. Both popes belonged to the Borgia family, hence its heraldry is displayed in the ceiling.
The side aisles were vaulted on the orders of Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville (1443-83). The cardinal also commissioned a new baldacchino or high altar canopy, and relief panels from this by Mino da Fiesole are now on the apse wall. As part of this restoration project, two entrances flanking the apse were opened and side chapels in the ends of the transept fitted out.
By this period, the sacristy and other ancillary accommodation for the church were located in a huddle of structures next to the bottom end of the right hand aisle. Most of these have gone but the Chapel of St Michael survives as the shop, and has frescoes by the school of Piero della Francesca. This is the oldest surviving side chapel, and was evidently built or re-fitted at this time. Accommodation for the canons was located in another two-storey block to the left of the entrance portico.
The Sack of Rome in 1527 despoiled the Chapel of the Manger. As the main focus of devotion here it had become a treasure-house, and had altar gates of silver, an altar frontal of beaten gold and a golden statue of the Madonna and Child weighing over two kilograms. All were lost.
St Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits, offered his first Mass as a newly-ordained priest at the altar of the Cappella del Presepe in 1537. This was the midnight Mass of Christmas.
Further external side chapels began to be added to the basilica itself soon after, with access arranged by the simple expedient of knocking a hole through the ancient aisle side wall. The Cappella Cesi was first, about 1550, and the Cappella Sforza next door followed in 1573. The latter was allegedly designed by Michelangelo.
The basilica saw massive patronage by Pope Sixtus V (1585-90), who began work on the Cappella Sistina in the year before his election when he was still Cardinal Felice Peretti. This was primarily intended as his mortuary chapel, but doubled up as the basilica's Blessed Sacrament Chapel. The architect was Domenico Fontana, who used some of the polychrome marble spolia available from the demolition of the ancient Septizodium. The result was an edifice that could count as a church in its own right -if it were free-standing.
The old and much admired Cappella del Presepe by Arnolfo di Cambio was in the way, and the initial intention was to move it to the centre of the new chapel. Unfortunately, the attempt failed and the structure fell to pieces. The mosaics and Cosmatesque work were destroyed, but several elements including the crib figures were scavenged and so survive in the present structure.
The pope also ordered new roads to be built to improve access to the basilica. To provide a direct link between the city centre and the church he laid out the Via Painisperna. The Via Merulana (actually begun by his predecessor, Pope Gregory XIII) linked the basilica with the Lateran. Then, the Strada Felice was built to Trinita dei Monti. The works were overseen by Domenico Fontana. A large formal piazza was laid out to the north of the basilica, and an obelisk provided in 1587 that was sourced from the Mausoleum of Augustus.
To make way for this piazza, the present Piazza Esquilino, the old church of San Luca was demolished. This had been the home of the city's confraternity of painters, and in compensation they were given the church of Santa Martina in the Forum. The painters took the dedication with them, hence their church is now Santi Luca e Martina.
After the pope died, the ongoing work of restoration was completed by Cardinal Domenico Pinelli in 1593. His heraldry was inserted into the Cosmatesque floor. One last work accomplished was to replace nine of the 5th century mosaic panels on the nave side walls with works in fresco, owing to the fact that they had fallen off or were about to do so. Unfortunately, the frescoes did not copy the lost panels.
The Cappella Sistina received its twin, the Cappella Paolina, at the start of the 17th century. This was intended as the mortuary chapel of Pope Paul V, and was begun in 1605. The structure was completed in 1611, but decorative work went on for another five years. The architect was Flaminio Ponzio.
As part of the chapel's construction, the colonnade outside it was altered by moving two columns apart and inserting an arch into the wall above. The same was done for the Cappella Sistina opposite. Unfortunately, six of the 5th century mosaic panels were destroyed as a result.
The pope also commissioned Ponzio to do something about the mediaeval sacristy wing, which must have become an embarrassment by then. He demolished the old baptistry and sacristy, and replaced them with a new multi-storey block also including a set of papal apartments. Unfortunately, the frontage of this protruded beyond the façade of the basilica and was in line with the colonnade of the entrance portico -aesthetically very unfortunate. An engraving of the result is here.
Pope Paul commissioned Carlo Maderno to erect the Colonna della Pace in front of the basilica, with a statue of Our Lady on top.
However, it seems that the intention in the 17th century was to focus on the back end of the basilica as the focus of the church's monumental civic presence. In 1669, Bernini was appointed by Pope Clement IX to remodel the apse -the Gothic windows were well out of fashion. Bernini's proposal included a surrounding colonnade, but Clement X, the next pope, cancelled the project owing to the proposed expense. In 1673, Carlo Rainaldi was appointed to execute a scaled-back project. This involved exterior cladding being added to the old apse instead of its replacement, the alteration of the exteriors of the windows and the adding of a symmetrical frontage to the transept. This was extended to front the sacristy block of the Cappella Paolina to the right (the church's left) and a large aula adjacent to the Cappella Sistina. Rainaldi then added the impressive, curving sweep of stairs in front. His work has remained unchanged.
A major restoration was ordered by Benedict XIV (1740-58), who chose Ferdinando Fuga as the architect. The work took several years from 1741. The entrance frontage of the church had been very unsatisfactory for over a century, so Fuga built another five-storey ancillary block to the left of the basilica's façade, matching that put up by Ponzio to the right. To erect this he demolished the two-storey mediaeval accommodation block for the canons which had survived till then. He also connected the two blocks with a new façade built in front of the old one. This incorporated a second-storey Loggia of Blessings over the entrance portico, and fortunately the old mosaic on the original façade was mostly left alone. It survives on the back wall of the loggia.
Oddly, the sculptural works included in the new façade and entrance loggia are poorly documented.
In the sanctuary Fuga provided a new baldacchino in 1749, and preserved some of the reliefs from the mediaeval one by attaching them to the apse wall. He also built a new Chapel of the Crucifix (also known as the Chapel of the Relics) off the right hand aisle. He dismantled the two Gothic tabernacles in the sanctuary, and used the porphyry columns for this chapel.
The Cosmatesque floor of the central nave was carefully restored, and missing areas replaced with new. One patch of new work bears the date 1750, a Jubilee year for which the church's restoration was finished. On the other hand, the floors of the side aisles were replaced with marble tiles.
Fuga also re-vamped the colonnades. Previously, the ancient columns had been used as found by the original 5th century builders of the basilica and were of differing lengths and widths. Uniformity was achieved by packing the bases as needed. Fuga carefully removed the columns one by one, pared down the thicker ones and cut short the longer ones so that the set was uniform. Then he provided a new set of bases, and new capitals. So, although the nave side walls are ancient and bear their original mosaics (mostly), the colonnades actually count as 18th century.
There seems to have been an intention also to provide a left-hand campanile to match that on the right, but all that happened is that the old one on the left was demolished.
Very unfortunately, Fuga cleared out most of the many sculptural funerary monuments that adorned the side aisles. He moved a few to the exit vestibules at the far ends of the aisles and the near end of the left hand aisle, but the rest are lost.
Not much has been done in the way of alterations to the basilica since.
A major re-ordering of the parishes of the Centro Storico took place in 1824, under the bull Super Universam issued by Pope Leo XII. This suppressed the parish of Santa Prassede, and transferred the territory to a new parish attached to the basilica -an odd thing to do.
In 1825 Giuseppe Valadier created a baptistry out of what used to be the choir chapel of the canons, who had to move into the Cappella Sforza.
In 1883, the Via Cavour was opened. This finally gave the basilica an adequate access from the city centre.
Attention needed to the roof of the transept in 1931 led to the discovery of fragments of 13th century wall frescoes hidden by the 15th century vault. This restoration went on until 1933 and also involved the aula in the far right hand corner, which bears an epigraph on its frieze recording the fact. In 1932, the baldacchino of the high altar was chopped down in order to improve the view of the apse mosaic behind.
Unfortunately, in the latter part of the 20th century, the chapter of canons failed disgracefully in their responsibilities and corruptions in the church's administration crept in. By the end of the century, the basilica was in a poor state of repair and its patrimony had been squandered. The situation had become so bad that the Italian authorities were warning that the building was becoming dangerous to visitors. The roof had leaked, causing rot in the nave ceiling, and water from rotten window frames in the nave side walls had penetrated the walls behind the 5th century mosaics which were in danger of falling off.
A Welsh convert priest called Dilwyn Lewis, who had been made a canon of the basilica in 1984, was appointed by Pope St John Paul II as Vicar Capitular (imposed administrator, basically) to oversee a major restoration of the basilica's fabric and functions. This involved £9 000 000 being spent on renovations to the fabric, which Lewis was instrumental in raising, and in substantial improvements to the basilica's liturgical and cultural life. Lewis was prone to violent outbursts of rage, which were effective in dealing with useless people relying on tenure but which possibly led to health problems and his death in 2000. Pope St John Paul opened the new, properly laid-out museum in the following year. Renovation of the Cappella Sistina followed in the early 21st century, and the chapel was closed for several years.
The chairman of the "Liberian Chapter" (the basilica's canons) has always been a cardinal, referred to as the Archpriest (Arciprete). The previous incumbent was Cardinal Santos Abril y Castelló, cardinal deacon of San Ponziano. Since the end of 2016 it has been Cardinal Stanisław Ryłko, titular of Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re.
The Redemptorists based nearby at Sant'Alfonso de' Liguori all'Esquilino used to assist in the basilica as sacristans, but are no longer listed by the Diocese as having any responsibility here. The secular custodians in charge of managing visitors are now employees of the Vatican, since the basilica is extraterritorial, and are under the authority of the Guardiano of a community of Franciscan Friar of the Immaculate. The previous Guardiano was Fra Angelo Maria Gaeta, who was seriously wounded in the face when attacked in the church with a broken bottle in January 2017. It is now Fra Gregorio Maria Adolfo.
Layout and fabric
The ancient brick fabric of the original basilica is completely invisible from the outside, owing to later accretions.
The central nave has a single pitched and tiled roof, and a second roof with a transverse gable covers the transept. The apse has a semi-dome in lead (invisible from the street). The mediaeval campanile is over the first bay of the right hand aisle.
The entrance façade has an open portico in the first storey, and a Loggia of Blessings over this in the second. This contains 13th century mosaics. The façade is flanked by two identical ancillary blocks, the right hand one containing the sacristy and the papal apartments and the left hand one the ceremonial stairs to the Loggia of Blessings. This left hand block is continued down the left hand side of the church as a five-storey accommodation wing, and joins onto the Cappella Paolina. It conceals two large side chapels (the Cappella Sforza and Cappella Cesi).
The right hand ancillary block is not so extended down the right hand side, and so the Cappella Sistina is free-standing. There is a screen wall here instead, delimiting a courtyard in which privileged members of the basilica staff can park their cars.
More ancillary accommodation occupies the far corners beyond the two large domed chapels (Sistina and Paolina), and the far frontages of these are incorporated into the apse façade which is mostly clad in travertine limestone.
This monumental apse frontage by Rainaldi 1673 is arguably more impressive than the entrance façade, and is the first part of the church you will see if you arrive by the Via Cavour.
The obelisk in front is one of a pair that used to embellish the Mausoleum of Augustus, which was discovered fallen and buried in three pieces in 1519. It was repaired and re-erected here in 1587, on the orders of Pope Sixtus V. Its companion is now in the Piazza del Quirinale. These two are about 14.75 metres high, and bear no hieroglyphs. Hence they are not Pharaonic, and it is uncertain whether they were quarried in Aswan, Egypt to order for the mausoleum or were left-over builders' stock after the temple-building campaigns of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
The apse of the church is set into an impressive symmetrical composition, which is best viewed by the Via Cavour. There, the octagonal lead domes of the two side chapels are visible on their high drums, each side of which has a large rectangular window with a segmental pediment. Interestingly, the two domes are almost identical but not quite -the little lead cupolas of the lanterns are slightly different. Rainaldi actually composed the design with this viewpoint in mind; as you get closer, the dome drops from view and the impression unfortunately then becomes one of a rather hulking mass of masonry.
Rainaldi dealt with the hill slope by installing an impressively wide and curved set of stairs, in two flights. These are now (2014) behind moveable railings, and are inaccessible. Presumably this is to prevent people sitting on them.
The apse itself has four windows round-headed on the outside, separated by Corinthian pilasters in shallow relief which support an entablature. These windows have molded frames, and omega cornices supported by strap brackets. Below each window is an almost square blank panel, in relief within a frame. The front of the apse has no window, but instead an epigraph detailing the restoration by Pope Clement X. Above is his coat-of-arms, borne by angels. The roofline has a pin balustrade which conceals the lead semi-dome of the apse conch, and incorporated in this are plinths for four statues by Francesco Fancelli (1624-81), a local Roman sculptor. This set is his major surviving work. King David and SS Peter, Paul and Dominic are represented.
Flanking the apse are two doorways with raised triangular pediments, which lead into the far ends of the basilica's side aisles. Above these is a pair of almost square windows with omega cornices over a star emblem, derived from the heraldry of Pope Clement. The entablature of the apse is continued on both sides over the entire façade, and above this behind the apse is the back wall of the transept which has more framed blank panels and a pin balustrade.
The pair of protruding two-storey zones flanking these entrance doorways themselves contain two doorways with segmental pediments, which lead into the ancillary accommodation on each side. There is a pair of Corinthian pilasters on the first storey of each, and a pair of Doric ones on the second. The first storey has a window with a triangular pediment, but the second storey has a window with an omega cornice over a scallop shell.
Finally, the ancillary accommodation frontages each have four Corinthian pilasters supporting the entablature over which is another pin balustrade. In between the capitals are putto's heads with swags. Two rectangular windows with segmental pediments flank a large tablet, the left hand one bearing an epigraph recording the work of Pope Sixtus V and the right hand one that of Pope Paul V. Here the symmetricity of the façade breaks down, because the right hand tablet is embellished with three heraldic shields which for some reason were never provided for the left hand one.
It might have been that the missing shields were removed by the French occupiers at the end of the 18th century, since they certainly defaced papal heraldry elsewhere on the exterior of the basilica.
Unlike the central part of the façade, which is entirely clad in limestone, these two ancillary frontages are rendered in yellow ochre behind the architectural details. The ancillary frontage on the right, fronting the sacristies of the Cappella Paolina, was actually designed and erected by Ponzio and Rainaldi used it as an inspiration for his own design. Especially, the pin balustrades are a Ponzio feature and occur elsewhere in the basilica's fabric.
Cappella Paolina frontage
From the apse, the Cappella Paolina is to the right. First comes the side of the ancillary block by Ponzio, which actually contains the sacristy of the chapel. This has a very similar design to its frontage flanking the apse, except that there is a central statue allegedly by Giovanni Antonio Paracca, Il Valsoldo, of St Jerome as a hermit in the Syrian Desert, under a triangular pediment. Also, the frontage here is on an enormously high plinth.
The slightly earlier frontage of the chapel itself, by Ponzio 1611, is two-storeyed, the lower storey forming three sides of a hexagon on a plinth of the same height. The central portion has four Corinthian pilasters supporting the entablature, with a large tablet proclaiming the construction of the chapel by Pope Paul V which is topped by three heraldic shields having defaced heraldry as well as a six-winged putto's head representing a seraph. The tablet is flanked by a pair of statues in round-headed niches with segmental pediments, having smaller tablets above them with the names of the saints (not easy to read). The narrower diagonal zones to each side each have a statue and two pilasters.
The left hand side statue is of St Luke, holding the icon of Salus Populi Romani which he allegedly painted. This has also been attributed to Il Valsoldo, but there are serious doubts about his responsibility for this statue and that of St Jerome because he is now thought to have died in 1599.
The left hand central statue is of St Matthew by Francesco Mochi, the right hand central one is of St Matthias by "Andrea Sonsino" (?) with the battle-axe with which he was allegedly martyred, and the right hand side one is of St Epaphras by Stefano Maderno with the assistance of Francesco Caporale. St Matthias is here because his alleged relics are under the high altar. It is nowadays thought that Maderno and Caporale were responsible for his statue, too.
The second storey of the chapel displays its Greek cross plan, and is embellished with Doric pilasters.
Beyond the chapel is the frontage of the canons' palazzo, a good 18th century late Baroque five-storey façade by Fuga in red brick with stone details. The two entrances (the left hand one blocked up) have arched portals under nested pediments, a triangular one within a segmental one. These are supported on brackets with triglyphs. The lintels bear the name of Pope Benedict XIV. The fourth storey windows have little pin balustrades, except for an anomalous one on the right which is actually the back window of the Cappella Sforza. The balustrades are imitating the work of Ponzio on the right hand sacristy block of the basilica, over a century earlier.
Cappella Sistina frontage
From the apse, the Cappella Sistina is to the left. The frontage of the ancillary block here actually differs from the corresponding frontage next to the Cappella Paolina. There is no central statue, but a window instead. Also, the pilasters have doubletting strips. There is an epigraph on the frieze of the entablature, proclaiming a major restoration in 1933 under the aegis of Pope Pius XI: An. Iub. MCMXXXIII Pii XI P. M. XII a mundo Red. MCM.
The chapel is separated from the street by a stone screen wall, delineating the former carriage yard of the basilica (now basically a car park). The chapel itself, by Fontana 1685, displays its Greek-cross plan in its exterior. The street frontage differs substantially from that of its twin, and has two storeys. The first storey has four Corinthian pilasters with doubletting and tripletting strips, with a central framed panel having a segmental pediment which looks like a blocked window. The second storey, above the entablature, has four blind pediments (without capitals) supporting a roofline entablature. The roof around the dome drum is flat.
You can see the surviving mediaeval fabric of the Chapel of St Michael peeping over the screen wall next to the Cappella Sistina.
Next is the sacristy block, by Ponzio and built at the same time as the Cappella Paolina. It displays a relief panel with the coat-of-arms of Pope Paul V.
Column of Peace
The Colonna della Pace in front of the basilica used to belong to the Basilica of Maxentius in the Forum, and is a gigantic ribbed Corinthian monolith, described as being of Parian marble. It was erected here on its very high plinth by Carlo Maderno in 1614, on the orders of Pope Paul V. Two eagles and two dragons in bronze adorn the plinth, which derive from the pope's family of the Borghese. The statue of the Immaculate Conception on top is in cast bronze which was formerly gilded, and the wax model for it was by Guillaume Berthelot. The actual caster was Orazio Censore.
The fountain accompanying the column is by Carlo Maderno, but is not in its original form. It used to be embellished with more Borghese heraldry, but this has been removed.
The mostly Romanesque campanile or bell-tower is the highest one in Rome, at 75 metres. It was rebuilt between 1370 and 1378 on the orders of Pope Gregory XI on his return to Rome from Avignon, replacing an earlier one damaged in an earthquake. It is over the first bay of the right hand side aisle, and rests on the ancient foundations there. The steep pyramidal cap was added when Pope Paul V had the tower restored, and there was another restoration under Pius VII (1800-23). A major problem was lightning strikes, and this pope ordered a lightning conductor fitted.
The red brick tower has six storeys, but only four are visible above the façade. Each of these four upper storeys used to have arched openings on each face, but the lower two have had theirs blocked and the second one up now contains the basilica's public clock. Above the clock face is the heraldry of Pope Paul V again.
The storeys are separated by decorative cornices, formed from modillions in marble in between dentillations in brick. A matching string course connects the arch springers in each storey. Originally, each face of each storey had a row of five coloured ceramic dishes set into the fabric above the arches, each surrounded by a recessed circular frame, with two others flanking the arches and one in between them. Many of these dishes have perished, and some are obscured. Most were green. The idea was to provide a cheap alternative to the old practice of sawing decorative discs from ancient columns of rare stones, usually porphyry or green serpentine.
The first visible storey has two blocked Gothic (that is, pointed) arches on each face -that is why the campanile is "mostly" Romanesque. The second storey has a pair of double arches, blocked up. The third storey has these arches in their original state, each pair being separated by a marble column. The top storey has these two pairs of arches set within two larger arches, the tympani of which have each a stone quatrefoil opening (another Gothic hint).
The oldest bell that the campanile had was a famous one called La Sperduta, dated 1289. This is no longer used, but has been in the Vatican Museums since the early 20th century. The story is that the odd name, "The Lost One", derives from its having been donated by a pilgrim who was lost in the vicinity on a dark night and who oriented himself by means of the basilica's bells being rung. (This is interesting evidence about how dangerous a wilderness this part of the city was in the 13th century.) The tradition has been maintained through the centuries of ringing this bell (now its replacement) at 21:00 each evening.
The façade was designed in 1743 by Ferdinando Fuga, on the orders of Pope Benedict XIV. He employed a strong chiaroscuro effect, a play on light and shadows, in his design of the central section which fronts the ancient façade of the basilica. Below is the entrance portico, and above is a so-called Loggia of Blessings from which the pope could bless a crowd in the piazza.
What Fuga started with was the block containing the sacristy and papal apartments to the right, which was already a hundred and thirty years old and was by Flaminio Ponzio. He decided to match this with a symmetrical block to the left, and connect the two buildings with his two-storey loggia. Unfortunately the pope did not like the result very much and thought it frivolous, and art critics since have sometimes been unkind. Pope Benedict allegedly said: Si credette fossimo impresari di teatro perché sembra una sala da ballo.
The façade and the two flanking blocks are certainly very different in style, but Fuga tried to unite them by giving the combined roofline a pin balustrade (a feature that Ponzio had already provided for his block).
The flanking frontages display two gigantic matching coats-of-arms supported by angels. The 18th century one on the left is anonymous, but the 17th century one on the right is by Nicolas Cordier and Ambrogio Buonvicino. The latter is of much better quality.
The actual façade of the basilica has two storeys, and is entirely in travertine limestone. It has five rectangular portals, separated by six rectangular piers. The two on each side have an applied semi-column, with the combined capitals done in Ionic style. However the central pair of piers differ, in that their inner sections are replaced by free-standing Ionic columns flanking the portal and that they have full columns in front instead of semi-columns.
The piers support an entablature with a dentillated cornice, and the columns and semi-columns support six posts in front of this. These posts support three pediments over the entablature, the flanking ones being triangular and with scallop shells in their tympani and the central one being segmental. The latter is over the coat-of-arms of Pope Benedict XV, which defaces the entablature. On the triangular pediments are pairs of putti with Papal emblems, but on the central pediment sit two allegorical figures. Humility is by Pietro Bracci, and Chastity by Giovanni Battista Maini. The pairs of putti are by Pieter Antoon Verschaffelt (left) and René-Michel Slodtz (right).
These pediments are in front of the attic plinth of the second storey, also with six posts. In between the pediments the attic is embellished with two floral swags. The posts support six plinths, with a pin balustrade between them. The outer two plinths have a pair of statues, but the inner four support Corinthian semi-columns (outer pair) and columns (inner pair), which themselves support four posts in front of an entablature with a dedicatory epigraph mentioning the pope. On this entablature is a second pin balustrade, the one that runs along the rooflines of the flanking blocks, and this balustrade contains four plinths for statues.
The second storey only fronts the central nave of the basilica, hence is narrower. In between the outer pair of statues and its sides are a pair of understated concave sweeps. In between the semi-columns and columns are three large arched portals opening into the Loggia of Blessings. The two flanking ones have arches with molded archivolts springing from Doric imposts and fitting under the entablature, but the central one is much larger. It has a pair of free-standing columns supporting the archivolt, which rises through the entablature into a crowning triangular pediment. Defacing the keystone is a large stucco relief of the Holy Spirit in Glory. Finally, the central finial is replaced by a statue of the Madonna and Child on a high Baroque plinth.
The four statues of popes are a problem. The identities of the popes concerned are uncertain, as seem to be the proper attributions to the four sculptors responsible. They were: Agostino Corsini, Carlo Monaldi, Bernardino Ludovisi and Carlo Marchionni. Roma Antica e Moderna published in 1750 gives them as the sculptors of the statues in that order, left to right. Info.roma thinks that the statue by Monaldi is of Pope St Gregory the Great, that Corsini's is of Pope Benedict XIV, that Ludovisi's is of Pope Sixtus III (with doubt expressed) and that Marchionni's is of Pope Paschal I.
Epigraph of Pope Eugene III
When Fuga built his portico, he had to demolish the 12th century portico put up by Pope Eugene III (1145-53). This had a horizontal roofline entablature supported by eight Ionic columns arranged in pairs, and with a dedicatory epigraph on its frieze. Fuga had the sense to preserve the inscription, which he affixed to a side wall of the sacristy block where it survives. It reads:
Tertius Eugenius, romanus p[a]p[a] benignus, obtulit hoc munus, Virgo Maria, tibi, que Mater [Ch]risti fieri merito meruisti, salva perpetua virginitate tibi, es via, vita, salus totius gl[ori]a mundi, da venia[m] culpis virginitatis hono[s] ("Eugenius III, blessed Roman pope, offered this sacred gift to you, Virgin Mary, who deservedly merited to be the Mother of Christ. Perpetual virginity was preserved for you, you who are the life, salvation and glory of the whole world, give healing to the guilty, O honour of virginity ").
Portico and loggia
When Fuga rebuilt the portico, he kept and re-used the eight ancient columns of the mediaeval portico that he demolished. Four of these are in grey granite, and four in red. He installed two to flank the central portal, two flanking the central entrance to the basilica and the other four at either end of the portico.
The lower portico fronts five separate entrance doors. The middle three open into the central nave of the basilica, and the far right hand one leads into the campanile. The one on the far left hand side leads into the left hand aisle, and is the Holy Door which is only open during Jubilees (Holy Years).
There is a doorway in the left hand end, which gives access to the formal staircase leading to the Loggia of Blessings. (However, you cannot go up by this route, but only via the museum). When Vespignani refitted the confessio in the 19th century, he moved some mediaeval reliefs and memorials to this staircase lobby. Angeli listed four memorial slabs of bishops of the 15th century, one effigy of a bishop of the same century and a memorial with bust dated 1690.
Here now also is a large seated statue in bronze of Pope Paul V by Paolo Sanquirico 1620, which used to be in what is now the shop (Chapel of St Michael). This important work had been neglected, but was recently restored. A gallery of photos is here.
At the right hand end of the portico is a bronze statue of King Philip IV of Spain, by Girolamo Lucenti 1692 to a design by Bernini. It is within a round-headed niche with olive sprays in its conch, set within a aedicule consisting of two of the ancient columns supporting a triangular pediment.
The barrel vault is attractively decorated in a geometric design in cream, light grey and gold, the pattern being based on a six-pointed star containing a rosette. The central bay has a little cupola with square coffering, having the Monogram of Our Lady in the middle. The pendentives have plant fronds, of four different species including rose and olive. The stucco details are by Della Valle.
The central bronze door dates from 1949, is by Lodovico Pogliaghi. He actually begun work on the wax model in 1937, but the actual casting was twelve years later. The figurative panels depict episodes from the life of Our Lady, framed by images of prophets, Evangelists and four women of the Old Testament who prefigure her. The main panels are, from bottom to top and left to right, The Birth of Our Lady, The Presentation of Our Lady, The Annunciation, The Visitation, The Nativity, The Assumption, The Crucifixion, The Deposition, Pentecost and The Ascension of Christ. The side figures are, bottom to top and left to right: Abigail, Rebecca, St Mark, St John the Evangelist, Judith and Esther. At the top are the coats-of-arms of Popes Pius XI (left) and Pius XII. At the bottom are smaller panels depicting The Expulsion from Paradise (left) with the Prophet Isaiah, and Elijah on Mount Carmel with King David.
The bronze Holy Door was blessed by Pope St John Paul II on 8 December, 2001, after the Millennium Jubilee. It is by Luigi Enzo Mattei, and was paid for by by the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre. The main panels depict the Risen Christ appearing to Our Lady (an old tradition, not in the Bible, has it that she was the first person to whom he appeared after his Resurrection). The right hand side depicting Christ is modelled after the image on the Shroud of Turin, and the left hand one shows Our Lady as modelled on the icon Salus Populi Romani. In the upper left corner is a depiction of the Annunciation at the Well at Nazareth, a story drawn from apocryphal Gospels, while on the right there is a depiction of Pentecost. The lower corners show, on the left, the Council of Ephesus which proclaimed Mary as Theotokos (Mother of God) and, on the right, the Second Vatican Council which declared her to be Mater Ecclesiae (Mother of the Church). The coat-of-arms of Pope St John Paul II, as well as his motto Totus Tuus, is above the door, while the two shields further down are those of Cardinal Carlo Furno, archpriest of the Basilica in 2001, and of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre. (The Cardinal was Grand Master of the Knights as well, hence their patronage.)
Over the doors are four sculptured relief panels. The sculptors and subjects are given as, left to right:
Maini, Pope St Gelasius I Oversees the Burning of Heretical Books (over the left hand side door);
Bracci, Pope St Hilary Holds a Council (over the right hand side door -there is doubt about the pope's identity);
Ludovisi, John the Patrician and Pope Liberius (over the statue of King Philip).
Loggia of Blessings
Access to the Loggia of Blessings is via the museum, and is included in the ticket.
The loggia has a simply decorated barrel vault, with cut-away lunettes exposing the parts of the mediaeval mosaic that would otherwise be covered by it. This vault springs from corbels decorated with putti by Filippo Della Valle.
There are now four stucco angels looking rather out of place here, with gilded clothing and holding sprays of vegetation. They are by Pietro Bracci, and were executed in 1749 for the new baldacchino provided by Fuga for the high altar. However, in 1932 it was decided that the top of the baldacchino should be chopped off to improve the view of the apse mosaic, and so the angels were banished. They were lucky to survive.
From the loggia, one can see San Giovanni in Laterano in the distance at the other end of the ruler-straight Via Merulana.
The famous late 13th century mosaic here used to decorate the façade of the basilica above its old portico, before Fuga built his new portico and loggia in front of it. It dates from the restoration ordered by Pope Nicholas IV (1288-92), and was (at least in part) executed by Filippo Rusuti. He was a pupil of the Jacopo Torriti who executed the apse mosaic. There are two registers, the upper one being signed by Rusuti -there are, however, doubts about the lower register, on the grounds of style and workmanship. Gaddo Gaddi has been suggested as the artist here. The work was completed in 1308.
Note how the wall behind the upper register curves out slightly -this is a cavetto cornice, and was provided so that the mosaic was not foreshortened in the view of anyone standing just in front of the old mediaeval portico. The lower register contains an oculus or round window, a feature of the original 5th century basilica.
The centre of the upper register depicts Christ as Pantocrator (Ruler of All), in a traditional Byzantine style. He sits on a scarlet cushion on a richly decorated throne and holds a book, which displays the text Ego sum lux mundi, qui... ("I am the light of the world who [takes away the sins of the world]."). The background is dark blue with golden stars and is bounded by a pale blue circle or tondo, which represents the entire Universe.
On the lower part of the band around the tondo is Rusuti's signature: Philipp[us] Rusuti fecit hoc opus. This signature was an example of a new trend towards individuality in producing artworks for churches in the 13th century. In ancient times artists had often signed their works, but in the early Middle Ages those responsible for church decoration had usually seen themselves as part of a workshop, rather than as individual creative artists needing recognition. The Cosmati family are another good example of early signers.
Four angels accompany the tondo with Christ's image, two of them holding candlesticks. By the feet of these two angels are two small figures, depicting Cardinals Pietro and Jacopo Colonna who oversaw the completion of the mosaic after Pope Nicholas had died. (The family's shield is depicted four times around the oculus, but the dedicatory inscription that used to be above it was destroyed by Fuga.)
To the sides of the central depiction are Our Lady, Apostles and saints. The saints are identified by means of Latin inscriptions, but the Virgin Mary is identified with a Greek lettering, a contracted form of Mater Theou (Mother of God). Closest to Christ are the Virgin and St John the Baptist. Further to the left are SS Paul, James the Great and Jerome (the last included because his relics were thought to be somewhere in the church). To the right of St John are SS Peter, Andrew and Matthew. Above are symbols of the Evangelists.
This depiction is a deesis, and is a type of artwork that is usually only found associated with the sanctuary of a church. The effect of having it on the façade was to turn the whole piazza into a locality for worship when the great pilgrim processions of the Middle Ages reached it on the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. While the dogma was only defined solemnly in 1950, the Feast and the doctrine it is based on go back to at least before the year 500, and it was (and remains) the most important Marian celebration in the calendar of the Catholic Church. In the Middle Ages, the Pope would celebrate Mass from the portico on that day.
The lower register has scenes from the foundation legend of the basilica. The style of clothes and the papal insignia depicted belong to the 14th century, rather than to the 4th century when the events allegedly took place, but this was standard practice in mediaeval representations. There are four scenes: The Dream of Pope Liberius, The Dream of the Patrician John, John Recounts His Dream to the Pope and The Pope Outlines the Plan of the Basilica in the Snow.
The mosaic can sometimes be seen from the piazza outside if the light is just right, but you will then only discern a small part of it. You are strongly recommended to have a closer look by buying a museum ticket. Guided tours are also available, and are advertised online.
The basilical plan has been well preserved inside. The edifice has a nave with side aisles. Then comes a shallow transept, and finally an external semi-circular apse. The overall length of the interior is 86 metres.
The high altar with its confessio is at the far end of the nave, with the transept actually behind it -this is unusual. Originally, the 5th century basilica did not have any transept. The reason was that the main purpose of one in early church design was to provide space for pilgrims flocking to a saint's shrine. In the case of this basilica, however, the main focus was not on a tomb (such as those of the Apostles Peter and Paul in San Pietro in Vaticano and San Paolo fuori le mura), but on the liturgical veneration of Our Lady. Mary had been assumed body and soul into Heaven, and therefore she has left no relics of her body to be venerated. There is a monument near Ephesus in Turkey known as the House of Mary, but the idea that she died and was buried here only goes back to the 19th century. The Tomb of Mary in Jerusalem is a church in which her empty sepulchre is venerated -the more traditional location of her Assumption.
The transept was added by Pope Nicholas IV (1288-1292) when he had the apse rebuilt.
Unlike other old Roman churches which might have a number of external side chapels, the basilica has a few very large ones. The two enormous papal mortuary chapels of the Cappella Sistina and Cappella Paolina could count as churches in their own right -in fact, the latter is the basilica's location for saying ordinary Masses. They are through the archways cut into the side colonnades in 1611. To the left are two other large chapels, and to the right one smaller one. Most of the near right hand side is taken up by a wing containing the sacristy and baptistry, with the Papal apartments on the first floor above. The mediaeval Chapel of St Michael is accessed through the baptistry, and is now the shop. The museum is accessed through this in turn.
Originally the nave had twenty-one bays, flanked by colonnades containing a total of forty-two Ionic columns supporting an entablature rather than arcades (this arrangement is known as a trabeation). Thirty-eight of the columns are of Hymettian marble sourced from near Athens in Greece, while the other four are in grey granite. The marble is white, with a vague grey streak. It is certain that the columns are spolia, and probably came from more than one ancient Roman building since they were not originally a matching set. They look uniform now, but that is because Fuga in the 18th century pared down the thicker ones and shortened the longer ones in order to match them up. The Ionic capitals and the bases are also by him, so the colonnades are really 18th century.
The regularity of the column spacing was disturbed twice in the basilica's history. The first event was when two campanili were built at the near ends of the aisles, probably in the 12th century. Blocking walls were inserted into the first two bays in order to support these, and the first pair of columns moved back (they are still there, but incorporated into the walls). The second intervention was in 1611, when the two large arches were cut into the nave walls in front of the papal chapels and the columns to each side shuffled back. Fuga put the four granite ones here in his restoration.
The entablature supported by the columns has a scrollwork design with little birds on its frieze and modillions (little brackets) on its cornice. In between the modillions the cornice displays a star and a pine cone in turn. Above the cornice the nave side walls each have a row of Corinthian pilasters, originally one above each column, which support the second entablature on which the ceiling now rests. Originally also there was a round-headed window between each pair of pilasters, but half were blocked in 1593 and given frescoes instead (twenty-two in total). The frieze of this second entablature is embellished with scrollwork containing putti and bulls (the bull is an emblem of the Borgia family), and the lower parts of the ribbed pilasters are gilded. This second entablature replaced the original 5th century one which had acanthus leaf decoration -fragmentary evidence of this has survived.
Below these windows and former windows are original 5th century mosaics depicting Old Testament scenes, which makes them the oldest surviving cycle of Christian mosaic panels in a church in Rome. (There are older single mosaics, such as the one in the apse of Santa Pudenziana nearby which is fifty years older.) They were once thought to have belonged to the Liberian Basilica originally and to have been re-used, but later research has firmly dated their creation to 432–440, that is the pontificate of Pope Sixtus III. The reason for the original idea is a puzzle as to what the themes (the stories of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and Moses) are actually doing in a church dedicated to Our Lady. The style of the depictions is Classical, that is pre-Byzantine.
In the reign of Pope Eugene III (1145-53), the extant exquisitely intricate Cosmatesque floor in the central nave was laid. The names of the patrons are recorded: Scoto di Paparone and his son Giovanni. They were commemorated in an intricate central panel which showed them on horseback with a dedicatory inscription, but this is unfortunately lost.
This pavement was restored in 1593 by Cardinal Pinelli, and again by Fuga in the 18th century when some areas were re-laid. It is easy to tell which these are, as the year 1750 is included and also the quality is not so good as the original's. Also, the wide borders in white marble tiles around the Cosmatesque panels are 18th century and not aesthetically pleasing.
However, in other old Roman churches similarly damaged Cosmatesque floors were being ripped out and replaced with boring marble tiling, so Fuga is to be commended. The floor could have ended up like those now in the side aisles.
The work now includes a memorial slab for the cardinal, with his heraldry in polychrome inlay.
Up to the 15th century, the roofs of the central nave and aisles were open. In 1455, Pope Callixtus III had the central nave covered by a flat coffered wooden ceiling allegedly designed by Giuliano da Sangallo, which would have been amazing since he was only ten at the time. It was actually begun by Leon Battista Alberti, and completed by Sangallo. The story is that the later gilding was done using the first shipment of gold to Spain from the conquered Inca Empire, presented to Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503) by Ferdinand and Isabella. Both popes belonged to the Borgia family, hence its heraldry is displayed in the ceiling. Most of the coffers are identically treated, with a central gilded rosette and several orders of gilded molding in the frame. The background is white, and the effect is spectacular.
This enormous ceiling covers the entire central nave, including as far as the triumphal arch behind the high altar.
It was restored by Fuga in 1750 after rot had got in, and again in 1825 by Valadier. The gilding was restored by the former, so even if the Peruvian legend as to the source of the original gold is true it does not apply to the gilding displayed now.
Side aisle fabric
The side aisles were vaulted on the orders of Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville (1443-83). In both aisles, opposite each column is an engaged Ionic pilaster in shallow relief revetted in grey-streaked marble, supporting an entablature from which the barrel vault springs. The nave columns support the matching entablature on the other side. Over each pair of pilasters and pair of columns is a semi-circular lunette, those in the side wall containing windows. These cut into the vault, which is divided into sections by semicircular ribs embellished with three rosettes each. Each section has a large six-pointed star within a wreath. The colour scheme is gold on cream. (These 15th century vaults were later interrupted by the frescoed vaults of the entrance bays of the papal chapels.)
Fitted into the wall between each pair of pilasters is a molded marble frame, some of these functioning as doorways and others as niches. Over each of these is a stucco relief panel in gold on cream, featuring a wreath. Some of the niches contain side altars, but the majority contain confessionals.
The decorative elements are all by Fuga.
Papal memorials in entrance vestibule
The old supporting walls of the 12th century campanili created an entrance vestibule at the beginning of the nave by blocking off the lower ends of the side aisles. These two walls proved useful places to locate two matching papal funerary monuments.
That of Pope Clement IX (1667-1669) is to the right, and was designed by Carlo Rainaldi in 1671. The seated statue of the pope is by Domenico Guidi, while the allegorical representation of Faith is by Cosimo Fancelli and that of Charity is by Ercole Ferrata. The monument is in polychrome marble, featuring white, red, green and yellow, and the effigy is in an aedicule with a pair of Corinthian columns in red marble supporting a segmental pediment. The two Virtues are in rectangular side niches, set back slightly under a pair of horizontal entablatures and with a pair of red marble Corinthian pilasters at the outer corners.
On the opposite side, to the left of the entrance, is a memorial to Pope Nicholas IV, designed by Domenico Fontana in 1574. This was over three centuries after the death of the pope. It is the earlier of the two memorials, and is in the same style although more ornately decorated. Both memorials have very fine holy water stoups in the form of shells stuck to their fronts.
It is actually easy to come into the basilica, look around and go out again while forgetting to look at the counterfaçade. So, on entering do look over the entrance doors before going on.
The two entablatures of the nave side walls are united into one by being carried across the counterfaçade. This has a large round window or oculus, which intrudes into the higher entablature and is in fact original to the 5th century basilica. In 1995 it was provided with stained glass by János Hajnal which depicts Our Lady, Mother of the Church. She is shown symbolically as the union of the Old and New Testaments, with the Menorah and the Tablets of the Law on the left and the Cross and Eucharist on the right.
This window is flanked by five ribbed Corinthian pilasters (the outer two folded into the corners) in the style of those on the nave walls. These flank two larger frescoes over two smaller ones. The former are part of the nave wall cycle dealing with the life of Our Lady, and are mentioned again below. The latter match the panels of the ancient mosaic cycle on the side walls, also dealt with below.
The lower entablature is supported on the counterfaçade by five Ionic pilasters in grey-streaked white marble, the outermost pair again being folded into the corners. Over the main entrance is a broken triangular pediment, occupied by the coat-of-arms of Pope Clement VIII supported by angels. A smaller coat-of-arms supported by putti and actually on the entablature is of Pope Benedict XIV, and was executed by Giovanni Battista Ledoux 1750. On the entablature over the side entrances are the shields of Cardinals Pinelli (left) and Girolamo Colonna (right), while below the three shields are tablets recording the restorations that the pope and cardinals supervised.
The 5th century figurative mosaic panels on the nave side walls are of first importance -but It can be hard to view them, since the natural light is rather dim and comes from windows immediately above them. Binoculars are useful here. The order of the cycle is from the left hand side near the high altar down to the entrance, and again from the right of the high altar to the entrance again. Biblical references are given for the scenes in the descriptions below.
There are now thirty-six panels left of the original forty-two, since six were lost when the Pauline and Sistine Chapels were built. Some of the thirty-six were heavily restored with paint during the Middle Ages, and some were reconstructed in fresco in 1593 and later. This is especially the case with those nearer the entrance. A total of nine mosaics on the thirty-six have been completely lost, leaving twenty-seven mosaics. The fresco work replacing these nine and the missing bits in other panels has not survived well.
The left hand cycle features scenes from the lives of the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Twelve panels survive. Most of these each depict a story in two or three conjoined scenes, and show:
1) The Offering of Bread and Wine to Abraham by Melchisedec. Abraham is returning from winning a battle with invading kings, in a single scene. This is regarded as a prophecy of the Eucharist, hence the presence of Christ in heaven. (Gn 14:18).
2) The Visit of the Three Men of God to Abraham at the Terebinth of Mambre. There are three scenes. Abraham welcomes the three guests, Sarah prepares bread for Abraham, and Abraham serves them at table (Gn 18:1-8).
3) The Parting of Abraham and Lot with their Families. This is when Lot set out for Sodom, depicted in the top right hand corner. The separate scene below shows shepherds with their animals, because the separation was caused by lack of pasture in one place (Gn 13:1-12).
(The next three panels have been destroyed for the Cappella Paolina. Unfortunately, nobody recorded the subjects beforehand. One hypothesis is that the scenes were The Destruction of Sodom, The Escape of Lot and The Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca.)
4) Jacob Steals the Blessing of Esau. The top panel shows Isaac blessing Jacob, with Rebecca on the right. The damaged lower panel shows Esau belatedly arriving with a meal of game (Gn 27:22-31).
(The next panel shows The Dream of Jacob at Bethel, a fresco painted in 1593 to replace a lost mosaic).
5) The Arrival of Jacob at the Household of Laban. There are three scenes. Laban is in a yellow tunic, Jacob in a blue one and Rachel is in an orange dress with crimson stripes. The lower part is frescoed (Gn 29:12-13).
6) Jacob is Tricked into Marrying Leah Instead of Rachel. The top scene shows him agreeing to work as a shepherd for seven years in order to marry Rachel. The bottom scene is lost, but would have shown him tricked into marrying Leah instead (Rachel's sister) (Gn 29:15-24).
7) Marriage of Jacob and Rachel. The top scene shows Jacob leaving the sheep to marry Rachel, and the bottom shows the wedding (Gn 29:28-30).
8) Payment by Laban to Jacob for his Services. The top scene shows the agreement to share the flock, and the bottom one the division. The agreement was that Jacob would have the parti-coloured sheep, hence some are depicted thus (Gn 30:25-35).
9) Return of Jacob to Canaan. There are three scenes: Jacob encourages the sheep to produce parti-coloured offspring (read the Bible narrative if you want to know how), God tells Jacob to return to Canaan and Jacob tells his two wives that they are going (Gn 30:37-31:16).
(The next panel has a fresco depicting Jacob Recognises the Bloody Tunic as Joseph's -this episode is much later, when Joseph was sold as a slave into Egypt by his brothers. The scene is out of place, and was chosen when the fresco replaced the lost mosaic in 1593.)
10) The Meeting of Esau and Jacob in Shechem. There are three scenes. The top left one shows a messenger from Jacob meeting Esau in Canaan, the top right one shows the messenger telling Jacob that Esau was on his way and the (mostly lost) bottom scene showed the meeting of the two brothers (Gn 32:3-33:5).
(The next panel has a 1593 representation of The Sacrifice of Isaac, again out of place in the cycle. It is fairly clear that the original scene was The Rape of Diana at Shechem.)
11) Hamor Asks to Marry Diana. He was the man of Shechem who raped Jacob's daughter. The top scene shows him making the petition, and the bottom scene shows the sons of Jacob debating the matter (Gn 34:4-7).
12) The Men of Shechem Agree to Circumcision. The top scene is the proposal made by the sons of Jacob, and the bottom one is the men of the city agreeing to it (Gn 34:8-23).
(The last three panels have frescoes dating to 1593, and there is a fourth panel on the counterfaçade which was never part of the original sequence. They depict: The Prophet Elisha Divides the Jordan with Elijah's Mantle, and Makes the Bitter Water Sweet (2K 2:13, 19-22); Daniel in the Den of Lions (6:17-24), The Fall of Jerusalem (2K 25:7) and the fourth is Jacob Wrestles with the Angel.)
The right hand wall depicts The Journey to the Promised Land. Fifteen mosaic panels survive.
(The first panel, to the right of the high altar, shows The Apotheosis of a Martyr and is a 1593 fresco. The original scene would have been Moses in the Reeds.)
13) The Career of Moses at the Court of Pharaoh. He is shown being adopted by Pharaoh's daughter at the top, and disputing with philosophers below (Ex 2:9-10. The second scene is not Biblical, but is based on a legend mentioned by Philo.)
14) Moses Marries Zipporah, and the Burning Bush (Ex 2:21, 3:1-4).
(The next three panels were destroyed for the Cappella Sistina. They are recorded as having depicted The Meeting of Moses and Aaron, Moses and Aaron Before Pharaoh and The Institution of the Passover.)
15) The Crossing of the Red Sea (Ex 14:16-31).
16) The Miracle of the Quails. There are three scenes -the people complaining about not having meat to eat, God talking to Moses and the actual arrival of the "quails" (actually sandgrouse) (Ex 16:2-13).
17) The Bitter Waters are Made Sweet, and Moses Orders Josua to Fight Against Amalec. There are two separate episodes depicted (Ex 15:24, 17:9).
18) Victory Over Amalec (Ex 17:10-13).
19) Return of the Spies from Canaan, and Revolt of the People. The latter scene shows the Ark of the Covenant in the Tabernacle (Nu 13:26-33, 14:10).
20) Moses Hands Over the Ten Commandments, Moses Dies on Mount Nebo and Preparations for Entering the Promised Land. The Ark features again (Dt 31:24-29, 35:1-5, Js 3:6).
21) The Crossing of the River Jordan, and The Spies at Jericho (Js 3:14-4:11, 2:1-6).
22) The Angel Appears to Joshua, the Flight of the Spies from Jericho and The Report of the Spies to Joshua (Js 5:13-16, 2:15-24).
23) The Capture of Jericho (Js 6:1-18).
24) The Amorite Kings Attempt to Capture Gibeon, and Joshua Sends Assistance. (Js 10:5-9).
25) The Defeat of the Amorite Kings, and the Miraculous Fall of Hail. (Js 10:10-11).
26) The Sun Stands Still at Gibeon (Js 10:12-14).
27) The Kings Are Brought to Josua to be Executed. (Js 10:22-25). This panel is damaged.
(The next two panels are lost, and have been replaced with 1593 frescoes. They depict The Carrying of the Ark of the Covenant and The Seven-Branched Candlestick. The fresco panel on the left hand side of the counterfaçade depicts The King of Israel.
Above the nave side wall mosaics, on the blocked windows mostly, are a series of late Mannerist frescoes featuring scenes from the life of Our Lady. The set was commissioned by Cardinal Pinelli originally, and were mostly painted in 1593 (except for three). They have helpful labels in Latin over them -although you will need binoculars to read these.
The cycle starts to the right of the high altar, and runs clockwise. The frescoes are: The Angelic Glory by Giovanni Battista Ricci, SS Joachim and Anne with The Immaculate Conception by Ferraù Fenzone, The Birth of Our Lady by Aurelio Milani 1742 (added in the Fuga restoration, over the arch to the Cappella Sistina), The Presentation of Our Lady by Baldassare Croce (she's the little girl running up the steps), The Marriage of Our Lady by Croce, The Annunciation by Ricci, The Visitation by Ricci, The Dream of St Joseph by Ferraù, The Adoration of the Shepherds by Andrea Lilio, The Adoration of the Magi by Croce, The Circumcision of Christ by Orazio Gentileschi, The Flight to Egypt by Ferraù, The Return from Egypt by the same (the last two are on the counterfaçade), The Holy Family in the Temple by Ventura Salimbeni, The Marriage of Cana by Ricci, The Way to Calvary by Ferraù, The Crucifixion by Croce, The Deposition by the same, The Resurrection by Lilio, The Ascension by Ricci, Pentecost by Ricci, The Dormition by Croce 1614 (the big picture over the arch to the Cappella Paolina), The Assumption by Ricci 1614 and The Coronation of Our Lady as Queen of Heaven by the same.
The high altar is a so-called "papal altar", reserved for the celebration of Mass by the Holy Father. The sacrament can be celebrated on it by others only with special permission.
The altar and baldacchino were erected by Ferdinando Fuga in about 1750, with sculptural details by Pietro Bracci. Fuga demolished the late 14th century baldacchino provided by Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, and put up the present very impressive work in porphyry and gilded bronze with details in what looks like verde antico but is actually painted wood.
Four massive porphyry Corinthian columns spirally entwined with gilded bronze palm fronds (an allusion to the martyrdom of the saint) support a cornice via four posts bearing acanthus leaf embellishments. In between the posts are pendant rows of bronze plaques featuring winged putto's heads and palm fronds. On the cornice facing the nave is a set of crossed Papal keys. There is a low saucer dome, coffered on the inside in squares.
The spiral palm fronds were added by Valadier in 1823.
Unfortunately, the baldacchino was mutilated in 1932. Before that, it had an open canopy formed by stucco figures of four angels, holding up one wing each so as to support a central crown and cross finial. They also held palm fronds which surrounded the crown. This charming composition by Bracci was chopped off because of a wish to improve the view of the apse mosaic, and the angels banished to the Loggia of Benedictions where they remain.
Originally, the four porphyry columns were part of a set of six which formed an open screen in front of the mediaeval high altar. They supported a horizontal marble entablature.
The altar itself is a porphyry urn containing the relics of St Matthias, and is accompanied by bronze angels designed by Bracci. Matthias was the thirteenth Apostle, elected after Judas Iscariot had either hanged himself or died in a fall (biblical accounts differ). Also in this urn are the relics of SS Simplicius, Faustinus and Beatrix, and portions from those of SS Lawrence and Stephen at San Lorenzo fuori le Mura. Apparently some bones were found during the construction of the altar in the 18th century which were surmised as being those of St Jerome and these are in here as well, but these are extremely dubious.
The confessio is the open devotional crypt in front of the high altar, on an arch plan with a pair of longitudinal staircases flanking it in two flights. It had been fitted out by Cardinal d'Estouteville in the 14th century, but Pope Pius IX commissioned Virginio Vespignani to re-fit it in 1864. The result was sumptuous, with the floor and walls revetted in polychrome marble panelling (allegedly seventy different types of marble were used), but mediaeval reliefs and memorials were removed. Contemporary critical response was not universally favourable -for example, the French critic Francis Way (who had a nice turn of insult) described the result as similar to how the Americans fitted out the interiors of their steamboats on the Mississippi. A large statue of the pope by Ignazio Jacometti was added in 1883. The story that the pope initially wanted to be buried here, but chose San Lorenzo fuori le Mura instead after 1870 as some sort of odd protest against losing his temporal sovereignty in 1870, is false (he intended to be buried in the latter church all along).
Above the altar in the confessio is a reliquary which holds five pieces of wood. These are venerated as the Sacra Culla, the Holy Manger (feeding-trough) into which Christ was put at Bethlehem. Pope Theodore I (642-649) was said to have brought it to Rome shortly after the fall of Jerusalem in 638, but there is a documentary reference from the previous century which shows that the relic was already there. So the authenticity is uncertain, and one suggestion is that it might have been the manger in one of the first Christmas cribs at the basilica.
The silver-gilt reliquary is by Luigi Valadier, and replaced an 18th century one looted by the French at the end of that century. It is in the form of a soup-tureen with hanging festoons, and with a figure of the Holy Child on top. Some modern visitors have asked why the Child has a Mohican haircut -this is the silversmith's attempt at a rayed halo. The reliquary has several crystal windows through which the Culla can be seen.
Once upon a time the reliquary was taken into the centre of the nave and displayed on the 25th of each month, and large groups of pilgrims could ask at the sacristy if they wished to see the relic at other times. However, the fragility of the Culla caused concern in the latter part of the 20th century and both of these practices were stopped. The reliquary is now only taken into the church for the Midnight Mass at Christmas.
Tomb of Bernini
A short distance away from the confessio, in the floor to the right of the high altar, is the simple tomb-slab covering the entrance to the crypt of the family of Gian Lorenzo Bernini. It displays the family's heraldry, and the epitaph Nobilis familia Bernini hic resurrectionem expectat ("Here the noble family Bernini waits for the Resurrection"). The architect himself has been given a short Latin epitaph of his own which is carved into the step adjoining -Ioannes Laurentius Bernini, decus artium et Urbis, hic humiliter quiescit ("Gian Lorenzo Bernini, the glory of the arts and of the city, here rests humbly").
Triumphal arch mosaic
The triumphal arch into the transept is, unusually, behind the high altar and is supported on simple engaged piers. These are revetted in grey-streaked marble, and have a shallow Ionic pilaster on the inward faces.
The mosaic above the arch was commissioned by Pope Sixtus III when he built the basilica in the 5th century. This was after the Council of Ephesus in 451, which proclaimed Mary as Theotokos (Mother of God), and the theme is picked up in the great 13th century apse mosaic behind which was commissioned by Pope Nicholas IV (1288-92). The arch here originally enclosed the 5th century apse, but it became a triumphal arch when Pope Nicholas demolished the old apse and built a transept with a new apse further back. It is thought that the lost 5th century apse mosaic had a theme similar to the present one, but this is now unprovable.
It should be remembered that this mosaic is part of the overall cycle of the nave mosaic panels described above, being part of the same commission.
Below the keystone is a scene known as the Hetoimasia. It features an empty jewelled emperor's throne, on which is the jewelled case of the True Cross. On the footstool is the Scroll with Seven Seals. St Peter stands to the left, St Paul to the right and above are the symbols of the four Evangelists. Below is an epigraph reading Xystus Episcopus Plebi Dei, ("Sixtus the bishop to the People of God") referring to Pope Sixtus (whose correct name was Xystus). This is the epigraph that began the tradition that the basilica belonged to the Roman people, rather than to the pope or the nobility.
The spandrels of the arch each have four scenes, one above the other. The scenes on the left are (top to bottom):
1) The Annunciation. Unusually, there are three angels instead of the one featuring in the Bible narrative, and one of these is talking to St Joseph who is to the right. The number three is an allusion to the three "men of God" who visited Abraham at the Terebinth of Mambre before the destruction of Sodom. (This Old Testament scene is featured in the second of the nave mosaics to the left.) The building to the right, behind St Joseph and with an open portal, is the House (or family) of David to which he belonged. The building to the right with closed doors might be representing Heaven, which would only be opened at the Incarnation about to happen when Mary gives her consent to the angel, or the womb of Our Lady as the New Temple.
The Blessed Virgin is depicted enthroned as an Augusta (a Roman empress) and dressed in cloth-of-gold, and is similarly depicted in the other scenes.
2) The Adoration of the Magi. Two of the Magi are to the right, and one to the left. They are dressed rather outlandishly, in bright colours and with tight trousers instead of tunics. This was the artist's way of indicating that they were foreigners. Christ is depicted as a boy-emperor on his throne, with the Blessed Virgin depicted seated to his right in the same dress as in the panel above. The figure seated to his left might be St Anne, Christ's grandmother, but her identity is seriously uncertain. St Joseph features again to the far left. Note the Star of Bethlehem between the four angels behind Christ.
3) The Massacre of the Innocents. The figure seated on the left is actually Herod, who is shown with a halo. This is evidence that the halo did not have a sacred significance in the religious art of the early Church, but was merely a way of highlighting the most important people in a composition. The soldiers are still recognisably ancient Roman.
4) Jerusalem. This stylized depiction actually includes some real topographical data. The gate opens onto a colonnade, the Cardo or porticoed street that ran north to south in the city as rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian (he called it Aelia Capitolina). Behind, you can make out the rotunda of the Anastasis or Holy Sepulchre, and the Martyrion or great Constantinian basilica that accompanied it. Below the city is a flock of sheep.
The scenes on the right are:
5) The Presentation of Christ at the Temple. The Holy Family accompanied by angels is to the left, with the prophetess Anna. To the right is Simeon the Elder leading a crowd, with the Temple behind and the two doves or young pigeons. To the extreme right is a separate scene where Simeon is warned in dream that he is about to meet the Messiah.
6) The Legend of Aphrodisius. This scene is not in the Bible, but depicts an ancient story featuring St Aphrodisius. According to it, he was a priest at the Jewish temple of Leontopolis in Egypt, who helped the Holy Family during their exile in that country. The temple here functioned identically to that in Jerusalem, with a hereditary priesthood and cursus of sacrifices. The depiction shows him leaving the city in procession in order to meet the Holy Family, depicted to the right with three angels.
7) The Magi Report to Herod.
8) Bethlehem, with more sheep.
The intrados (underside) of the arch is decorated with a pattern formed of four-petalled flowers in alternate blocks of colour, red, green and blue. It is a stylised rainbow, with the chi-rho symbol at the top.
The transept added by Pope Nicholas has no structural unity in the interior layout. This is because it has blocking walls inserted between the triumphal arch piers and the apse, thus creating a choir. The far sides of these walls are occupied by two entrance vestibules for the doorways flanking the apse, which are basically extensions of the nave side aisles.
In contrast to that of the nave, the ceiling of the sanctuary is very straightforward. It is in wood, with large shallow square coffers painted alternately light red and yellow with pale green frames. Each coffer has a starburst symbol, of different geometric types.
The side walls of the choir each have a cantoria or corbelled-out opera box for solo musical performers. These were added by Fuga, and now contain a pair of organs. Below each are three panels with purple and white brecciated marble slabs in gilded frames with verde antico surrounds.
Apse mosaic -conch
The famous mosaic in the conch of the apse which depicts the Coronation of the Virgin was executed in 1295 by Jacopo Torriti, a Franciscan friar who signed the work -Iacobus Torriti pictor hoc opus mosaicum fecit- in the extreme left hand corner of the conch. Traditionally, in the iconography of apse mosaics Christ was shown alone as Ruler (Pantokrator) and Teacher, but here he is shown with Our Lady. He shares a single royal throne and scarlet cushion with her, and is in the act of crowning her with a jewelled crown. In his other hand is an open book, reading Veni electa mea, et ponam in te thronum meum ("Come, my chosen one, and I will put you on my throne"). Her figure is only slightly smaller than his, and her blue velvet octagonal footstool is only slightly less grand than his. The footstools stand together on a single scarlet plinth This is Marian devotion at its most exalted. The starry orb surrounding them represents the Universe, including the Sun and Moon below the footstool plinth.
There is an epigraph below the orb, reading Maria Virgo assumpta est ad ethereum thalamum in quo Rex Regum stellato sedet solio. Exaltata est sancta Dei Genitrix super choros angelorum ad celestia regna. ("The virgin Mary is taken up into the eternal bedroom, in which the King of Kings sits on his starry throne. The holy Mother of God is exalted above the choir of angels to the heavenly kingdoms").
The orb is accompanied by a flock of angels on each side. Then, on a golden background, come two processions. These are fronted by two little kneeling figures, Pope Nicholas on the left and Cardinal Giacomo Colonna on the right. The left hand procession is composed of SS Peter, Paul and Francis, and the right hand one by SS John the Baptist, John the Evangelist and Anthony of Padua.
From behind the posterior saints arise two gigantic scrolled acanthus vines, which contain birds and flowers. The birds are accurately depicted -as well as a pheasant, two peacocks and two blackbirds there is a hawk killing a snake on the right, and a crane on the left. Also on the right is a rabbit!
In the top of the conch is a stylised curtain, symbolic of the hidden presence of God the Father (the Hand of God is often depicted, but not here). The bottom of the conch depicts the River Jordan as a symbol of baptism, with little scenes of waterfowl and people doing things on boats. There are actually two rivers springing from the centre, and ending at two pagan river gods at either corner.
It is uncertain as to how much this mosaic imitated the lost 5th century one that was destroyed when the apse was rebuilt. It has been suggested that Torriti was influenced by the mosaic at Santa Maria in Trastevere.
Apse mosaic -arch
The apsidal arch has a separate mosaic, but it is part of the same commission given to Torriti. The arch intrados bears two vines, arising from pots at either end held by pairs of putti. The vines bear various different kinds of fruit, in between nine tondi bearing portraits of saints (not labelled or identified). In the keystone is the chi-rho symbol again.
The spandrels of the arch show the twenty-four elders of the Book of Revelation (Apocalypse), above which are the four symbols of the Evangelists. The archivolt bears another two vine-scrolls, not so complicated and with no pots. These contain flowers, birds and little putti and meet at a tondo on the keystone displaying the Lamb of God. Either side of this tondo are the Seven Candlesticks of the Apocalypse.
Apse mosaic -wall
Below the conch, on the wall of the apse, Torriti's scheme continues with panels depicting scenes from the life of Our Lady. These are in between the windows, and are: The Annunciation, The Nativity, The Dormition, The Adoration of the Magi and The Presentation of Christ. The central scene, The Dormition, is the most important. It shows Our Lady on her bier, accompanied by the Apostles, some holy bishops to the left and holy virgins to the right. Christ is standing within a rainbow, holding her soul depicted as a young girl. Above are heavenly beings, including King David (labelled). The top left hand corner shows Mount Zion, and the top right hand one the Mount of Olives.
Around the outer corners of the curved apse wall are two more mosaic panels, which have nothing to do with Our Lady but concern the two saints whose relics are allegedly in the basilica. The left hand one shows St Jerome Instructing SS Paula and Eustochium in the Scriptures, and the right hand one shows St Matthias Preaching to the Jews.
The apse below the mosaic work was decorated by Fuga. The insides of the windows, however, are original 13th century work since they have kept the pointed Gothic shape. In between them are tripletted Ionic pilasters in the grey-streaked marble which is one of Fuga's trademarks in the basilica. These support a continuation of the nave entablature, broken by the windows and the cantorie.
In the far curve of the apse is a large painting by Francesco Mancini 1750, depicting The Adoration of the Shepherds. To either side are the wooden choir stalls of the canons, fitted into the curve of the apse, and in front is a completely gilded wooden free-standing bishop's throne.
Between the stalls and the lower mosaic panels are four reliefs which used to be part of the mediaeval high altar baldacchino demolished by Fuga. They are by Mino del Reame 1451 (perhaps the same person as Mino da Fiesole), and depict The Nativity, The Miracle of the Snow, The Assumption and The Adoration of the Magi. The surrounding wall is revetted in verde antico.
The description of the side regions of the basilica starts at the bottom of the right hand aisle, and proceeds anticlockwise.
At the bottom of the right hand side aisle is the so-called Cappella Patrizi. This family of Roman nobles liked to pretend that they were descendants of John the Patrician of the foundation legend, hence the altarpiece depicts Our Lady Appears in a Dream to John the Patrician. It is by Giuseppe Puglia, Il Bastaro, 1635. The altar is dedicated to Our Lady of the Snow. Its impressive aedicule features a pair of black marble Corinthian columns supporting the separated halves of a split triangular pediment, into which is inserted a panel bearing the family's heraldry and which is supported by a pair of angels with festoons. The altarpiece is lavishly framed in what amounts to a mini-aedicule inserted into an arch within the larger one, with a pair of little pinkish-grey marble Composite columns supporting a split segmental pediment into which a dedicatory tablet is inserted.
The altar is flanked by a pair of matching memorials to Costanzo Patrizi 1623 (on the right), with a bust by Alessandro Algardi, and to Patrizio Patrizi 1611 the sculptor of which is anonymous.
On the wall on the left when facing the altar is another good polychrome marble memorial to Massimiliano Pernŝtejn, a nobleman from Prague who was already in the Papal diplomatic service when he died aged eighteen in 1593. The sculptor of the bust and the pair of weeping putti is unknown.
The porphyry urn put under the high altar by Fuga in his restoration used to be in this chapel, and contained the alleged relics of John the Patrician and his wife. The authorities then decided that these were lacking in authenticity, and so buried them under the nave floor.
The sacristy block, including the baptistry, was designed and by Flaminio Ponzio in 1605 as part of his massive programme of additions to the basilica ordered by Pope Paul V. The baptistry itself was originally the Chapel of the Winter Choir, where the canons celebrated the Divine Office in winter when they found the main basilica uncomfortably cold (even now, northern Europeans can find the Roman sensitivity to slightly cold weather rather surreal). However, in 1825 Pope Leo XII ordered the canons to move out to the Cappella Sforza and for Giuseppe Valadier to convert the old chapel into a baptistry. The pope provided an ancient porphyry basin from the Vatican Museums to be the new font.
The baptistry has two bays, an antechamber and the baptismal chamber proper. The former has two large side doors, the one on the left leading into the Chapel of St Michael (now the shop, also the place where you can buy a museum ticket) and the one on the right accessing the sacristy suite. These two ceremonial doors are each flanked by two much smaller doors for daily use. The two bays are separately vaulted.
The square antechamber has a vault in the form of a truncated pyramid with four lunettes, three containing windows and one the arch into the baptistry proper. The slopes have rows of coffering in yellow within pale grey on white, and the lunettes contain wreaths in the same colour scheme. The charming central panel is by Domenico Crespi, Il Passignano, and features a band of five angels on vocals, organ, lute, violin and flute with others in attendance. A pair of putti hold up the music that they are playing, which is an antiphon in honour of the Immaculate Conception. The words are: Gaude Maria, a Deo electa ante quam genita, quae benedictionibus es praevisa dulcedinis ("Rejoice Mary, chosen before birth by God, who are foreseen with blessings of sweetness"). The female angelic vocalist is looking rather dyspeptic, and has wings in green, white and red (these were not the Italian national colours at the time). The arch lunette bears the coat-of-arms of Pope Paul V.
On the left hand wall in the antechamber are memorials to Innocenzo Merlo 1704 with a good half-length portrait to the left, and to the right a famous one to the "Marquis Antonio Nigrita", who died at Rome in 1608. He was an ambassador sent to Rome by Álonso II, ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo in what is now modern Angola. The king's name was actually Mpangu a Nimi a Lukeni, and he was keen to propagate Christianity in his kingdom as part of a modernising campaign in response to Portuguese aggression. So he sent one of his nobles, Antonio Emanuele N'Funta to Rome but unfortunately the young man seems to have died of malaria. He was given a sumptuous funeral. The bust is by Francesco Caporale, although guides asserted for centuries that it was by Bernini.
Over the door is a majolica tondo of St Joseph with the Christ-Child.
On the wall containing the entrance door are two busts of popes, in oval tondi with mitres and crossed keys above being held by putti. The one on the right is of Pope Clement XII, and that on the left is of Pope Benedict XIV. Over the door is a cameo portrait medallion of Pope Clement XI, flanked by two large epigraph tablets recording restorations by Pope Leo XII and Pope Gregory XVI.
On the right hand wall of the antechamber are two monuments with good busts. That to Odoardo Santarelli c.1640 by Allessandro Algardi is to the right, and that to Ludovico Sarego 1625 to the left. Over the door is an epigraph proclaiming the restoration by Pope Pius IX, and a small bust of him dated 1864. Flanking the epigraph are two stone candlesticks bearing a little bronze dragon and eagle, the Borghese family emblems which indicate that Pope Pius supplanted something extolling Pope Paul V.
The baptistry proper is entered through a railing gate flanked by a pair of ancient Ionic columns in red granite from Aswan in Egypt. These support an archivolt over the entrance, and to each side a horizontal entablature runs to an Ionic pilaster. These entablatures then split into two, to run below the vaults of antechamber and baptistry. In the latter it is supported by two further pairs of the granite pilasters on each side, their capitals containing putto's heads.
The baptistry vault is frescoed by Il Passignano again, and features The Immaculate Conception with Prophets and Doctors. It is richly decorated with gilded stucco ornament featuring caryatids and putti, and has Our Lady in the central panel. Four prophets are in the diagonal panels, and the four Latin Doctors of the Church are in the larger lunette panels. More putti occupy the smaller ones. The two side lunettes display frescoes from the apocryphal legend of Our Lady's birth, and feature SS Joachim and Anne Enter the Golden Gate of the Temple, and The Annunciation to St Joachim.
In front of the far wall the vault springs from two Ionic columns in cipollino marble from Euboea in Greece. These flank the altar aedicule, which has a pair of verde antico Corinthian columns supporting two fragments of a split segmental pediment on posts. The frieze of the entablature is also in verde antico. Into the pediment is inserted a panel of alabaster, with a putto's head above. The altar frontal is also in alabaster, with bronze and verde antico details. The altarpiece is a marble bas-relief of The Assumption by Pietro Bernini, the father of Gian Lorenzo. Above the aedicule is an orange glass panel featuring The Mystery of the Trinity Adored by Angels.
The font is sunken below floor level, being approached by three circular steps, and is surrounded by a circular pin balustrade with four portals flanked by eight bronze ball finials. It is an ancient porphyry pedestal basin, and has bronze fittings added. In the centre of the lid is a gilded bronze statue of St John the Baptist, executed by Giuseppe Spagna after a design by Valadier.
The side walls display more very good polychrome marble Baroque funerary monuments. To the right there are three, from near to far making remembrance of Giovanni Angelo Frumento, Cristoforo Battello and Francisco Herrera. Below the middle one is a famous portrait bust of Pope Benedict XIII by Bracci. To the left are (near to far) memorials to Alessandro Bonaventura and Decio Azzolino Firmano, with a window in between.
The sacristy is actually a suite of four rooms occupying the ground floor of the block by Ponzio 1605, to the right of the basilica's façade. This is a very unusual location for a church sacristy, which is usually near the high altar. There is firstly a large room called the Sacristy of the Canons, accessed from the antechamber of the baptistry, off which is the little Chapel of the Annunciation to the far right. On the near left is a door to the "small sacristy", which again has a small chapel off its far right hand side. Off the far left hand side of the Sacristy of the Canons is a room now used as the canons' chapter house (aula capitolare).
A little spiral staircase gives access to the upper storeys of the block, including the Sala dei Papi (see below). This staircase was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
When first written, this Wiki page said: "You may ask the sacristan to admit you to the sacristy, and the rooms behind it". This was a quotation from Stanley Luff's A Christian's Guide to Rome, which was written in 1967. It comes from a more relaxed and less busy age. Nowadays the sacristies are private, and are not accessible to the ordinary visitor. Those with a serious scholarly concern would need to contact the basilica's guardiano well in advance to arrange a possible visit. It would help to specify your area of interest -for example, a study of the works of Il Passignano. The sacristy's e-mail address is: firstname.lastname@example.org
Relic of St Thomas Becket
The basilica possesses a relic of St Thomas Becket, which is described as a tunic (La Tunicella) in yellow silk allegedly stained with his blood (not from his martyrdom, but from his practice of taking the discipline as a penance). The blood would make this a first-class relic. The item was examined recently, and described as a dalmatic of the right period.
Again, it used to be the case that a group of visiting pilgrims could ask a sacristan in the basilica to show them the relic. This now needs to be arranged well in advance -a pdf online application form for pilgrimages is here.
Sagrestia dei Canonici
The large doorway to the right in the antechamber of the baptistry leads immediately into the canons' sacristy. This is the largest room in the suite, and preserves its original intricately carved set of wardrobes in walnut. The carving includes the Borghese emblems of Pope Paul V. The ceiling vault by Il Passignano depicts The Coronation of Our Lady, and the lunettes by him show scenes from her life.
The altar has an altarpiece depicting The Madonna and Child by Scipione Pulzoni, Il Gaetano.
Chapel of the Annunciation
To the right of the altar mentioned above is a little chapel, the far wall of which is actually the right hand side wall of the basilica's entrance portico. Its decoration is by Il Passignano again, who executed the altarpiece depicting The Annunication and the vault fresco showing Our Lady with the Scapular.
The "smaller sacristy" (now the actual working sacristy) has its own entrance from the antechamber of the baptistry, which helpfully has sagrestia written on its lintel. The two vault frescoes by Il Passignano depict The Rest of the Holy Family in Egypt and The Circumcision of Christ. The walls display two reliefs by Luigi Capponi: Our Lady with Angels, and SS Jerome and Bernard.
Chapel of the Holy Spirit
Opening off the far right hand of the sagrestia minore is a little chapel dedicated to the Holy Spirit. It has a fresco depicting Pentecost by Il Passignano.
The chapter house or meeting room of the canons used to be a chapel, and opens off the far left hand side of the sagrestia dei Canonici. The vault fresco depicting The Dormition of Our Lady is by Il Passignano, but the frescoes of four allegorical virtues are by Luigi Fontana. They are: Charity, Faith, Humility and Virginity.
On the walls are displayed some more relief sculptures from the mediaeval high altar baldacchino demolished by Fuga. You have already seen some panels from this on the apse wall of the basilica. They are by Mino del Reame 1451, although a case has been made for Mino da Fiesole -and a modern opinion is that they were one and the same. The attribution is because the relief here of the Madonna and Child is signed opus Mini. The other fragments here depict Christ, and also saints and prophets in tondi.
Sala dei Papi
If you were to go up the Bernini spiral staircase in between the aula capitolare and the sagrestia minore, you will arrive at the Room of the Popes (Sala dei Papi) on the next floor up. The staircase rises further. However, as an ordinary visitor you have to access this room via the Museum. There, you will be given a tour which will take you to the Loggia with its mosaics, and then to this room via a doorway in the right hand end of the Loggia.
The room was fitted out in 1605, and the early Baroque fireplace bears this date. The unpainted coffered wooden ceiling bears the heraldry of Pope Paul V.
This room contains some museum displays, as well as a collection of pictures. The most important of the latter is The Procession of St Charles Borromeo by Domenico Muratori. Also on display are portraits of popes, canons and kings of Spain. The exhibits are mostly of liturgical vestments and texts, but also on display is the handle end of a broken and corroded sword which was originally buried with Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
Chapel of St Michael
Returning to the antechamber of the baptistry, the large door in the left hand wall of the antechamber leads to the former mediaeval Chapel of SS Michael and Peter in Chains, which is now the basilica's shop. After the 18th century restoration of the basilica by Fuga, it had a long period of being simply a vestibule on the way out into the basilica's side courtyard.
There was a chapel here in mediaeval times, which was refitted and frescoed in the restoration by Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville(1443-83). He enlarged it and provided an apse, which no longer exists. The cross-vaulted ceiling used to be supported by columns which have been removed, but the cardinal's heraldry is still displayed at the meeting of the ribs.
This cross-vault has fragments of 15th century frescoes depicting the four Evangelists. These are attributed either to Piero della Francesca, or to Lorenzo da Viterbo. A lunette displays Christ in the Tomb with Two Angels, and a wall has an unfinished St Michael Conquering the Dragon. These two works are tentatively attributed to Benozzo Gozzoli.
Beyond this former chapel is the enclosed cortile or side court of the basilica. You go through here to reach the museum. The most interesting item to be seen is a memorial erected by Pope Clement VIII in 1596 to commemorate the conversion of King Henri IV of France (he had been a Protestant before ascending the throne). It is a thin tapering shaft in the form of the barrel of a cannon on a plinth, with a crucifix on top.
This monument used to stand in the street in front of Sant'Antonio Abate all'Esquilino nearby, but was moved here in 1881 because it had become a hazard to traffic. Most of the cannon is in red granite, but the mouth of the barrel is in grey. On top of the latter is a stylized Composite capital in limestone, on which stands the crucifix. This has a corpus in bronze, and the ends of the cross have fleurs-de-lys also in bronze. Very unusually, the reverse side of the crucifix has a bronze statuette of the Mother and Child.
Also here is an octagonal wellhead in travertine limestone, dating from the reign of Pope Gregory XIII. A frieze epigraph commissioned by the same pope, commemorating a restoration, is on a wall together with the famous portico frieze epigraph by Pope Eugene III(1145-53), already described. They were put there by Fuga.
The description now continues from the entrance to the baptistry in the right hand aisle in the basilica.
Altar of the Holy Family
Before the next chapel there are two altars occupying niches in the aisle side walls. The first is dedicated to the Holy Family, and the elliptical altarpiece showing them with St Anne is by Agostino Masucci. There is no aedicule or reredos, but the lively late Baroque (tardobarocco) design by Fuga has the altarpiece apparently being supported by flying angels in stucco. These are by Bracci.
Altar of Bl Nicholas Albergati
Albergati is also honoured with a statue on the façade. He was an engaging character, but an obscure one nowadays. The reason why he has such a profile in the basilica is because he was the Cardinal Archpriest here for three years from 1440.
Chapel of the Holy Relics
The next chapel was an 18th century addition, designed by Ferdinando Fuga and built about 1750. It is actually dedicated to the Crucifix, and the altarpiece is a 15th century crucifix which used to be over an altar to the right of the basilica's entrance before the erection of the memorial to Pope Clement IX. In his fitting out Fuga used ten porphyry Corinthian columns which used to be part of the basilica's mediaeval sanctuary fittings before his restoration. The walls are revetted in yellow Siena marble, and the same stone is used for the relic depositories after which the chapel is now named. These are designed as aedicules, with triangular pediments.
There is a memorial here to the artist Girolamo Muziano, 1592.
Eight of the ten columns used to belong to the two Gothic tabernacles that once flanked the high altar. The Tabernacolo delle Relequie on the right used to be used for the veneration of relics including that of the manger, and had been sponsored by Giovanni and Vinia Capocci in 1256. A Cosmatesque panel commemorating them was saved when the tabernacle was demolished, and is now at the church of San Michele in Vico nel Lazio.
Altar of the Annunciation
The next side altar is in the same style as the previous two. The altarpiece depicts The Annunciation, and is by Pompeo Batoni.
To the right of the high altar is the enormous domed Blessed Sacrament Chapel, also called the Cappella Sistina after its founder, Pope Sixtus V. The pope had actually begun work in 1584, the year before his election when he was still Cardinal Felice Peretti. The architect was Domenico Fontana, who used some of the polychrome marble spolia available from the demolition of the ancient Septizodium. Work continued on the edifice until 1587, and on its decoration and monuments until 1590.
The much admired 13th century Cappella del Presepe by Arnolfo di Cambio was in the way, and the initial intention was to move it to the centre of the new chapel. Unfortunately, the attempt failed and the structure fell to pieces. The mosaics and Cosmatesque work that it contained were destroyed, but the crib figures and a few other elements were scavenged and so were installed in the confessio of the new chapel. The relic of the Sacra Culla was also kept here until the end of the 18th century.
St Jerome, Doctor of the Church and translator of the Bible into Latin in the 4th century, was allegedly enshrined in or near the old chapel. He had lived as a monk next to the basilica of the Holy Cave in Bethlehem, and it had been thought fitting to preserve his relics here, in the "Bethlehem in Rome". Somehow, the actual location of the relics of the saint has been forgotten (those allegedly discovered in the 18th century and put under the high altar are dubious at best).
The enormous tabernacle dates from 1590.
There was a restoration by Filippo Raguzzini in 1726.
In the French occupation at the end of the 18th century the precious metal fittings of the chapel, including the reliquary of the Sacra Culla, were looted. After the restoration of Papal government, the relic was given a new reliquary but then kept in the more secure Chapel of the Relics. It was then transferred to the newly renovated confessio of the main basilica, where it is now to be seen.
There was an extensive restoration of the frescoes in 1871, and another thorough restoration of the fabric at the start of the 21st century. For the latter the crib figures were moved to the underground part of the Museum, but should now (2015) be back in the confessio.
When the Cappella Paolina opposite was built, both chapels were provided with entrance arches in the nave colonnades in 1611. The archivolts each have a pair of stucco angels reclining on them, and a large picture above on the nave side wall. Here, the work is The Birth of Our Lady by Aureliano Milani 1742 (added in the Fuga restoration).
The side aisle bay in front of the chapel has a frescoed vault depicting the four Evangelists. SS Matthew, Mark and John are by Andrea Lilio, but St Luke is by Ferdinando Sermei. The iron railings separating the chapel from the aisle are worthy of notice, and have a row of candlesticks on top.
The chapel is on a Greek cross plan, with short wide arms and a central dome. The entrance arm is flanked by two little octagonal chapels. The left hand arm contains the shrine of Pope St Pius V, and the right hand one the memorial of Pope Sixtus V. The far arm contains a plinth for a papal throne. The altar with its tabernacle is in the central spot, with the confessio in front of it.
A small sacristy is tucked in between the right hand side chapel and the Chapel of the Relics just described.
The decoration of the entire chapel is extremely sumptuous. It is thought to be the first major example in Rome of the use of Baroque polychrome marble revetting to cover wall surfaces.
The inner corners of the Greek cross are occupied by the four massive engaged piers supporting the dome. These are chamfered on their inner corners, and flanking each chamfer is a pair of Corinthian pilasters in shallow relief. These are revetted with exquisite polychrome pietra dura work, including a star from the heraldry of Pope Sixtus. These pilasters support an entablature that runs around the entire interior, and has a red marble frieze. Its cornice has dentillation and egg-and-dart molding, as well as fronded modillions interspersed with rosettes.
The pendentives of the dome are bounded by four archivolts with rectangular coffering embellished with gilt stucco representations of saints, winged putto's heads and papal emblems, behind which are the four short barrel vaults of the cross arms. These are identically treated, with two rectangular fresco panels flanking a central elliptical one and more gilt stucco decoration.
Chapel of St Lucy and the Holy Innocents
The little domed octagonal chapel to the right just inside the entrance gate is dedicated jointly to St Lucy and the Holy Innocents. Over its entrance is Herod Orders the Massacre of the Innocents by Salvatore Fontana. The altarpiece is The Holy Communion of St Lucy by Paris Nogari -Pope Sixtus V is depicted with the saint. The altar mensa is on an ancient sarcophagus containing alleged relics of five of the Holy Innocents. The frescoes on the walls and cupola are by Giovanni Battista Pozzo the Elder, and show The Martyrdom of St Lucy to the right, The Massacre of the Innocents to the left and scenes from the life of St Lucy in the vault.
In here is the tomb of Cardinal Ugo Poletti 1997, former Cardinal Archpriest of the basilica. There is controversy attached to his memory, specifically because the basilica had been left in a state of serious disrepair while under his authority.
Chapel of St Jerome
The matching little chapel on the left hand side is dedicated to St Jerome. Over its entrance is The Annunciation by Fontana again. The wall frescoes are by Andrea Lilio, and depict St Jerome Washes the Feet of Pilgrims to the right and St Jerome Learns Aramaic to the left. These scenes are set in the Holy Land. The cupola frescoes are by Fontana and Pozzo. The altarpiece used to a portrait of the saint by Fontana, but the one there now is by Giovanni Micocca 1817.
The altar contains carvings from the mediaeval altar of St Jerome, destroyed to build the Cappella Sistina. They are attributed to Mino da Fiesole.
The confessio is only open to tours organised under the museum ticket, which you have to purchase. It is the descendent of the 13th century Cappella del Presepe, although as mentioned the attempt to preserve the entire mediaeval chapel by moving it bodily to here proved a failure.
The vase-shaped aperture is protected by a pin balustrade, with a single staircase splitting into two at a landing. The entry has a pair of bronze gates with papal heraldry. Below the landing, in a niche opposite the altar, is a statue of St Cajetan holding the Christ-Child by Nicolas Cordier. The saint had a great devotion to the original crib chapel and, in a letter that the saint wrote to a nun at Brescia, he explained that when he was once lost in prayer at this spot, the Holy Child climbed into his arms. He was to be instrumental in spreading the popularity of cribs in churches at Christmas.
The floor has a porphyry roundel surviving from the original Cosmatesque floor of the old chapel.
The altar, which also has Cosmatesque details, is protected by a shallow arch with two carvings in its spandrels by Arnolfo di Cambio. The left hand one is of King David, holding a text reading Introite in atria salutis, adorate Dominum in aula sancta eius ("Enter the halls of salvation, worship the Lord in his holy chamber"). The right hand one is of the prophet Isaiah, and his text reads Et pannis involutum reclinavit in praesepio ("She laid him in the manger, wrapped in rags"). There is some gold mosaic background, and the intrados of the arch also has mosaic work in dark blue with stars. It is thought that this arch was over the entrance to the old chapel.
Above the altar is a little round-headed niche. Before the recent restoration this contained a relief of The Nativity with an angel above it, by a sculptor given as "Cecchino da Pietrasanta". In recent years this has been in the Museum, but it might have been put back now (2015) the restoration is completed.
Arnolfo De Cambio's crib figures
The basilica's website seems to indicate that the crib figures by Arnolfo di Cambio 1290 have been put back in their side niche in the confessio here after being on display in the Museum.
The four original statues are of St Joseph, the three Magi (two carved together standing, and one separately kneeling) and the Ox and Donkey (only their heads together are shown). The Madonna and Child are both missing, and it is surmised that they were damaged beyond repair when the old chapel collapsed during the attempt to move it. The replacement is a statue by Giovanni Antonio Paracca, Il Valsoldo.
The original works by Arnolfo are superbly executed, and the patterning in shallow relief on the clothes of the Magi is especially worth attention. The depiction of St Joseph is considered a masterpiece, and his expression of thoughtfulness seems to be a hint of the old Byzantine iconographic tradition showing him in doubt. (Sometimes Byzantine icons of the Nativity show St Joseph with the Devil as a little hairy man, tempting him to doubt the Virgin Birth.)
The free-standing altar, behind the confessio, is completely dominated by the enormous gilt bronze tabernacle. This is the form of a model of the chapel, being carried by four angels who are also holding candlesticks. The original design was by Giovanni Battista Ricci, the angels were executed by Sebastiano Torrigiani and the tabernacle itself by Lodovico Del Duca.
It would be interesting to know how this tabernacle was meant to work. How does a cleric access the Blessed Sacrament within it, without using a ladder? There is another, much smaller tabernacle on the altar which seems to have been the actual working repository of the Sacrament.
Behind the altar is a stepped podium intended for a papal throne, although there is not one here now. Over this is a tablet with a dedicatory epigraph, flanked by a pair of pilasters in the style of those on the dome piers. The capitals of these are extended by a sub-frieze below the entablature, featuring reliefs of putti with garlands and with the heraldry of Pope Sixtus in the middle. A pair of frescoes flank the pilasters to the sides of the tablet, with three frescoes above it.
Top, left to right: Census in Bethlehem by Pozzo, Nativity by Salvatore Fontana (or perhaps Pozzo), The Annunciation to the Shepherds by Lilio. Left of tablet: St Paul by Pozzo, right of tablet: St Peter by Lilio.
The side walls of this cross arm have a pair of statues of SS Peter (right) and Paul by Leonardo Sormani, sculpted from designs by Prospero Bresciani. Over St Peter is a fresco of The Wise Men with Herod by Pozzo, and over St Paul is The Annunciation also by Pozzo although Cesare Nebbia has been suggested.
Shrine of Pope St Pius V
The far wall of the left hand side arm is completely occupied by the shrine of Pope St Pius V, executed by Domenico Fontana 1588. This two-storey composition could serve as the façade of a small church, and the tip of it touches the cornice of the interior entablature.
The focus of the first storey is a large seated statue of the pope by Sormani, in a round-headed niche with a molded archivolt in yellow Siena marble. This is flanked by four Corinthian columns in a pale green brecciated marble (not the genuine verde antico), which are on high plinths and which support an entablature with a red marble frieze. Below the statue the relics of the pope are in a recumbent wax effigy within a black marble, bronze and glass reliquary. He was enshrined here in 1823.
In between the columns are two marble reliefs by Nicolas Mostaert, a Flemish sculptor who in Italian may be found referred to as Nicolò Pippi d'Arras. The one on the right was also worked on by Gillis van den Vliete, who in Italian is Egidio della Riviera. It depicts Pope St Pius Commissioning Count Sforza Sfòrza di Santa Fiora to Fight the Huguenots in France. The right hand relief shows Pope St Pius Commissioning Marcantonio Colonna to Fight the Ottomans. This led to the Christian victory of the Battle of Lepanto.
The second storey has four caryatids supporting a cornice (no full entablature). Over the inner two is a broken segmental pediment containing the pope's heraldry. The caryatids flank three further reliefs, depicting (left to right) The Victory of Lepanto by van den Vliete, The Coronation of Pope St Pius by Mostaert and The Victory Over the Huguenots by van den Vliete again.
The right hand side wall here has a statue of St Dominic by Giovanni Battista Della Porta, with a fresco over it by Pozzo showing The Visitation. The left hand side wall has a statue of St Peter Martyr by Il Valsoldo. Over this is a fresco of The Journey to Bethlehem by Ercole de Maria. The reason why these two Dominican saints feature here is because the pope belonged to the Order.
Tomb of Pope Sixtus V
Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) is buried on the right-hand side of the chapel. Although he has never been canonized, he was venerated as a saint here for a long time. The monument is by Domenico Fontana, and matches the slightly earlier shrine of Pope St Pius V very closely.
The central statue of the pope is by Giovanni Antonio Paracca, Il Valsoldo. The flanking reliefs depict The Justice and Benignity of Pope Sixtus by Mostaert to the right, and The Faith and Charity of Pope Sixtus by Il Valsoldo to the left. The three reliefs in the second storey are by van den Vliete, and are (left to right): The Canonisation of St Diego of Alcalà, The Coronation of Pope Sixtus and The Reconciliation Between Emperor Rudolf and King Sigismund.
The right hand side wall has a statue of St Anthony of Padua by Pietro Paolo Olivieri. Over it is a fresco of The Flight to Egypt by de Maria. The left hand side wall has a statue of St Francis of Assisi by Flaminio Vacca, and over it is a fresco of The Adoration of the Magi by Pozzo.
The chapel's little sacristy is accessed via a doorway to the right of the above monument. The walls are frescoed by Pozzo; to the left is The Annunciation, the altarpiece is The Adoration of the Shepherds and to the right is The Adoration of the Magi. The lunettes have landscape paintings by Paul Brill, and the vault has scenes from the history of the chapel attributed to Pozzo.
The most important item in here is the washbasin. It bears a 15th century relief carving by Isaia da Pisa, featuring a vase with acanthus leaves between a pair of angels. It is thought that this is a surviving fragment of a lost Tabernacle of the Blessed Sacrament commissioned by Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville(1443-83).
In the sacristy a set of vestments worn by Pope St Pius V used to be kept tucked away, but these are now properly displayed in the Museum.
The four short barrel vaults of the chapel's cross arms each have three frescoes on its archivolt, and enclose two frescoes in a large lunette with a window in the centre. The theme of the frescoes are the Old Testament ancestors of Christ, as given in the genealogy at the beginning of the Gospel of Matthew.
Over the entrance, the archivolt has The Patriarch Jacob and His Sons by Giacomo Stella to the left, A Choir of Angels by Pozzo in the middle and Eliud, Eleazar, Matthan and Jacob by Salvatore Fontana to the right. (The latter-named Jacob was the father of St Joseph.) The lunette has The Sacrifice of Isaac by Stella to the left, and The Holy Family by Paris Nogari to the right.
Over the tomb of Pope Sixtus V, the archivolt has Kings Manasseh and Amon by an artist called Agnolo da Orvieto to the left, The Holy Spirit by Pozzo in the middle and Abiud and Eliakim by da Orvieto to the right. The lunette has Kings Josiah and Jeconiah to the left and Shealtiel and Zerubbabel to the right, again by da Orvieto.
Over the far wall, the archivolt has Kings Solomon and Rehoboam by Nogari to the left, A Choir of Angels by Pozzo in the middle and Kings Uzziah and Jotham by Nogari to the right.
Over the shrine of Pope St Pius V, the archivolt has Ezron and Ram to the left by Hendrick van den Broeck, known in Italian as Arrigo Fiammingo. The middle has The Holy Spirit again by Pozzo, and the right has Boaz, Obed and Ruth by Nogari. The lunette has Aminadab and Nahshon by van den Broeck to the left, and Solomon, Boaz and Rahab by Lattanzio Mainardi to the right.
The pendentives of the dome continue the ancestor theme. Jesse and David by Nogari are top left, Ahaz and Hezekiah by Nebbia are top right, Tamar, Perez and Zerah by Lattanzio Mainardi are bottom left and Azor, Zadok and Achim by Nebbia to the bottom right.
The drum of the dome has eight large windows, each with a pediment which alternates between triangular and segmental. These windows are separated by tripletted ribbed Corinthian pilasters, gilded on their lower parts and supporting an entablature on which the ellipsoidal dome rests. This has eight ribs, and the sectors are occupied by frescoes of The Heavenly Host by Pozzo, Mainardi, Nebbia and Stella.
Far right entrance vestibule monuments
The right hand side aisle ends in a back entrance flanking the apse. The vestibule has several wall monuments. To the left is one in polychrome marble to Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi, 1552. This is flanked by a pair of mediaeval epigraphs, the one on the right being dated 1325.
To the right is a large niche. The right hand side wall of this has a memorial to Ludovico Cerasoli 1591, and the left hand wall has an attractive Baroque monument to Giovanni Pietro Moretti 1646, whose bust is shown leaning out of a tondo supported by a pair of putti. The latter work has been recently attributed to Domenico De' Rossi.
Occupying the far wall of this niche is the early 14th century tomb, in Gothic style, of the Spanish cardinal Gonzalo Rodríguez Hinojosa, Archbishop of Toledo and Cardinal Bishop of Albano, who died in 1299. The work as a whole is thought to be of the school of Arnolfo di Cambio. It has a reclining figure of the cardinal on a draped bier bearing five shields with his heraldry, with an angel at each end. Above is a mosaic sheltered by a Gothic canopy with fine Cosmatesque decoration including a sixth shield. The mosaic shows the cardinal being presented to the Madonna and Child by SS Matthias and Jerome. The former holds a scroll reading Me tenet ara prior ("The high altar has possession of me"), while the latter's scroll reads Recubo p[rae]sepis ad antru[m] ("I rest next to the grotto of the crib".)
The mosaic on the tomb is signed by Giovanni di Cosma, one of the family after which the Cosmatesque technique is named. The inscription reads Hoc op[us] fec[it] Ioh[ann]es Mag[ist]ri Cosme, civis Romanus ("This work was made by Cosma, a citizen of Rome").
The monument was originally near the high altar, but was moved here by Fuga. The marble slab frontal below the effigy was inserted by him.
Far left entrance vestibule monuments
On the left hand side of the apse is an identical entrance arrangement to that found at the end of the right hand aisle, involving a continuation of the left hand side aisle to a back exit. The monuments here were also moved by Fuga.
In the aisle just beyond the Cappella Paolina are memorials to Cardinal Prospero Pubblicola Santacroce 1589, attributed to Prospero Bresciano, and also to Bartolomeo Sacchi, Il Platina 1481. The eagle holding a sack is a pun on the name of this noted humanist.
In the niche near the door, mirroring the one containing the Gothic Rodríguez tomb, are three other monuments. That to Clemente Merlini 1642 on the right was originally thought to have been designed by Francesco Borromini c. 1650, but the attribution depends on a throwaway remark in a surviving letter written by one of his friends and is no longer trusted. Recent research has produced an attribution to Giuseppe Peroni, of the school of Algardi. The memorial is entirely in red marble, except for the black marble epitaph tablet and the heraldry in the broken segmental pediment at the top. The four pilasters have skulls in place of capitals, and the bronze bust is in a wreathed tondo.
To the left is a memorial to Girolamo Manili 1634, designed by Giuliano Finelli. The far wall has a monument to Giovan Francesco Pasqualino 1582, attributed to Ludovico Scalzo.
The left-hand twin of the Cappella Sistina was founded in 1611 by Pope Paul V, and is named after him. The edifice was designed by Flaminio Ponzio, who was also responsible for the memorials to Pope Paul and Pope Clement VIII.
As well as a papal mortuary chapel, the building has had two other functions. Firstly, it became the burial place of the Borghese family and a hypogeum was provided under the sacristy on the right. As a result, the family became responsible for the chapel's upkeep for centuries and so the edifice is sometimes called the Cappella Borghese. Secondly, it became the shrine of the venerated icon of Our Lady, Salus Populi Romani and as such has been a focus of popular local devotion to the present day.
Pope St Pius V came here to pray during the Battle of Lepanto 1571, when a Christian fleet destroyed the Ottoman navy. Eugenio Pacelli celebrated his first Mass on the altar beneath the icon in 1899, and in 1939 he returned as Pope Pius XII to celebrate a Mass of Thanksgiving after his election. The people of Rome gathered here in numbers in 1944, when the Battle of Anzio was fought nearby and the British were proposing to carpet-bomb the city (a barbarity vetoed by the Americans).
The chapel remains the main focus of the ordinary liturgical life of the basilica. Ordinary Masses and Marian devotions will be found taking place here. As a result, access to visitors is controlled and you will not be allowed to enter if a liturgical event is taking place -unless you wish to join it.
When the chapel was built, both it and the Cappella Sistina opposite were provided with entrance arches in the nave colonnades in 1611. The archivolts of these each have a pair of stucco angels reclining on them by Ambrogio Buonvicino, and a large picture above on the nave side wall. Here, the latter is The Dormition of Our Lady by Baldassare Croce. The vault of the entrance by has a fresco depicting Doctors of the Church by Giovanni Baglione. The ornate wrought iron railings at the entrance are designed by Gregorio De' Rossi.
The layout is identical to that of the Cappella Sistina, with the following exceptions. Firstly, the high altar is against the far wall instead of below the dome. Secondly, there is not a single small sacristy. Rather, a suite of rooms occupies a block with an entrance to the right of the altar, and a very small room is down a corridor from a corresponding entrance to the left. Oddly, a very narrow passage runs from the former to the latter behind the altar -the Cappella Sistina lacks this feature.
Despite being over a quarter of a century later, the fabric of this chapel is very similar to that of the Cappella Sistina and Ponzio obviously made a conscious and careful effort to copy it. However, there are subtle and interesting differences and it is an interesting artistic exercise to visit this chapel immediately after looking at the other one in order to appreciate them.
The floor design is centred on a large tondo containing the heraldry of Pope Paul in pietra dura. On the other hand, the intricate pietra dura patterning on the pilasters in the Cappella Sistina is eschewed here, being replaced by simple revetting in red marble. This seems to be because this decoration was out of fashion in the evolution of Baroque by then, rather than because of any wish to save money.
The marble reliefs are more deeply carved here, the frescoes use darker tones and the gilded stucco work is more lavish (white on gold rather than gold on white). The overall effect is to give a more chiaroscuro effect in here compared to the impression given by the other chapel -perhaps more mystical than ecstatic.
The interior of the dome is occupied by one fresco, without ribs. This is thought to be the first example in Rome of this sort of depiction of the empyrean, which was to prove very popular.
The frieze of the interior entablature is in green marble, not red.
Finally, there are no wall frescoes below the entablature. Flanking the altar in their place are two cantorie or opera-boxes for solo musical performers.
Chapel of St Charles Borromeo
The small chapel to the right just inside the entrance gate is dedicated to St Charles Borromeo. He is commemorated here because Pope Paul V canonised him. The altarpiece portrait is by Baldassare Croce, and the side wall frescoes showing scenes from his life are by Baglione who also executed the angels in the vault.
Chapel of St Frances of Rome
The matching chapel opposite is dedicated to St Frances of Rome, whom Pope Paul V also canonised. The altarpiece portrait, biographical scenes on the walls and the angels in the vault are all by Baglione.
The enormous gilded bronze, red marble and alabaster altar aedicule dominates the far wall. The designer was Girolamo Rainaldi, apparently helped by Giovanni Battista Crescenzi and Antonio Tempesta. The actual execution of the work was by Pompeo Targone.
It has two pairs of gigantic ribbed Composite columns in red marble with gilded ribs, supporting the halves of a split segmental pediment, on which sit two angels executed by Guillaume Berthelot from a design by Camillo Mariani (who unfortunately died in the year that the chapel was consecrated). Into the gap between the halves is inserted a gilded relief panel with its own little segmental pediment, which depicts Pope Liberius and the Miracle of the Snow. This is by Stefano Maderno. The three smaller angels standing on top of its little pediment are by Egidio Moretti.
The altar itself, in the form of an ancient sarcophagus in lapis lazuli with bronze fittings, is 18th century.
Salus Populi Romani
The basilica's venerated icon of Our Lady was enshrined here in 1613. It is called Salus Populi Romani, "Well-being (or Salvation) of the Roman People" The icon itself is within an extremely elaborate frame made up of five bronze angels by Berthelot, and with two little putti on top by Camillo Mariani.
The work is difficult to date, but it is at least a thousand years old. Legend claims that it was executed by none other than St Luke the Evangelist, but this is clearly not true and is, in fact, derivative. The original icon to which that legend belonged was the Hodegetria, which was venerated at the Panaghia Monastery at Constantinople until it was destroyed by the Turks. It has given rise to an enormous number of imitations.
However, the icon here is not of the Hodegetria type in which Our Lady points to the Christ-Child with her hand ("showing the way"), but depicts her with her hands crossed in front of him as she holds him. It is claimed that this is a very old style of depiction, and that the original icon might be "late antique" (late 6th or early 7th century). However, there has been massive repainting. Unlike with other old icons in the city, here no attempt has been made in the latest restoration to remove overpainting, hence the original paintwork cannot be discerned. The oldest visible painting is of Christ's tunic, tentatively dated to the 8th century, but most of the rest is 12th century. The expressions of the faces and the haloes are certainly inventions of this period.
According to tradition, it was this icon that Pope St Gregory the Great carried in procession through the streets in 593, when Rome was suffering from an epidemic. On his way back from St Peter's, he saw St Michael the Archangel standing on the tip of the Mausoleum of Hadrian (later named Castel Sant'Angelo because of this vision). The archangel sheathed his sword when he saw the procession, and the city was saved.
Later instances of processions with this icon are much better recorded. The last time was in 1837, when Pope Gregory XVI had it carried through the city during a cholera epidemic. Both figures have been crowned, originally by Pope Clement VIII but again by Pope Gregory XVI after the French had looted the basilica and stolen the crowns. Again, it has been usual to remove such crowns when restoring old icons and the survival of the jewelled embellishments here is now unusual.
Memorial to Pope Clement VIII
The two papal memorials are very similar to those in the Cappella Sistina.
The one to the right commemorates Pope Clement VIII. The focus of the first storey is a large seated statue of the pope by Silla Longhi, in a round-headed niche with a molded archivolt in yellow Siena marble. This is flanked by four Corinthian columns in a pale green brecciated marble (not the genuine verde antico), which are on high plinths and which support an entablature with an alabaster frieze (not red marble, as in the Cappella Sistina). The columns flank two marble reliefs depicting important political events in the pope's reign. The one on the left shows The Conquest of Esztergom in Hungary from the Ottomans in 1595 (a temporary victory here, the Turks were only finally expelled in 1683), and is by Camillo Mariani. Unfortunately he died before he could finish it, and the work was completed by Mochi. The one on the right shows The Conquest of the Rebels at Ferrara, an event after the Papal government inherited the town in 1598. The townsfolk were not best pleased. The work is thought to be by Giovanni Antonio Paracca,Il Valsoldo.
The second storey has four caryatids sculpted by Pietro Bernini. These separate three marble reliefs are, from left to right: The Reconciliation of Kings Philip II of Spain and Henry IV of France by Ippolito Buzio, The Coronation of Pope Sixtus by Pietro Bernini again and The Canonisation of SS Julian of Cuenca and Raymond of Peñafort by Il Valsoldo.
Memorial to Pope Paul V
The matching memorial to Pope Paul V is on the left. The statue of the pope is by Longhi again, but the head had to be finished by Cordier. The two lower relief panels are, to the left The Emperor Rudolf In Battle Against the Turks by Maderno, and to the right Pope Paul Orders the Fortification of Ferrara by Buonvicino.
The caryatids are by Ferucci and Buzio. The upper reliefs are, left to right: The Canonisation of SS Frances of Rome and Charles Borromeo by Il Valsoldo, The Coronation of Pope Paul by Buzio and The Papal Audience by Cristoforo Stati.
The statues in the side wall niches are by Cordier. St Bernard is to the left, and King David to the right.
The sacristy of the chapel, also designed by Ponzio, has frescoes by Passignano. It is the first room entered in a suite of four, with the doorway to the right of the altar. The fresco cycle mostly depicts Old Testament scenes: The Sacrifice of Noah, Balaam and the Donkey, The Ark of the Covenant, The Vision of Nebuchadnezzar. Also there is a fresco of The Teutonic Knights, apparently.
The ceiling vault depicts Our Lady, the Source of Graces and the altarpiece depicts Christ and Our Lady Free Souls from Purgatory. The aedicule has a pair of alabaster columns.
The neighbouring large room, the Sala del Capitolo, had two early 16th century paintings which have been taken to the Museum, since they are not viewable here. One is by Domenico Beccafumi, The Madonna and Child with SS Catherine and Anthony, and the other is The Way to Calvary by Antonio Bazzi, Il Sodoma. The wooden ceiling has the heraldry of Pope Paul, and can be compared to that in the Sala dei Papi.
The entrance to the burial crypt of the Borghese family is also here. Popes Paul V and Clement VIII are buried therein, allegedly in porphyry sarcophagi. Surprisingly, Pauline Bonaparte was also buried there and this is because she had married into the family. A sour 19th century Roman legend alleged that, when her coffin was being taken into the crypt, a voice was heard from Pope Paul's sarcophagus: "Get that slut out of here!".
As with the Cappella Sistina, each of the vaults of the four cross-arms has three frescoes each and the wall lunettes bounded by the vaults also have frescoes. The side frescoes in the vaults each have a segmental pediment on which a pair of angels sit, which are by Cordier.
The entrance vault has three frescoes by Giovanni Baglione, showing the fates of three emperors who opposed the true Catholic faith. From left to right they are: The Fate of Leo III the Isaurian, The Death of Julian the Apostate and The Punishment of Constantine V Copronymus. The 8th century emperors Leo and Constantine were propagators of Iconoclasm and vicious persecutors of monastic communities rejecting that heresy, with the result that many took refuge in Rome. The loathing that they inspired can be seen from the nickname of the latter -"shit named", because when he was baptised as a baby he defecated in the font (allegedly). The lunette here has no frescoes, because it is occupied by a large window.
The right hand vault, over the memorial to Pope Clement VIII, is frescoed throughout by Guido Reni. In the lunette on the right is Our Lady Vests St Ildephonsus, and on the left is An Angel Heals the Severed Hand of St John Chrysostom (derived from a fictional legend). The vault has in the centre The Holy Spirit, SS Gertrude, Cunegunda and Pulcheria to the right and SS Cyril of Alexandria, Ildephonsus and John Chrysostom (? -or John Damascene) on the left.
The altar wall has no window in its lunette, but instead a large fresco by the Cavalier d'Arpino of The Vision of St Gregory Thaumaturgus. Our Lady and St John the Evangelist are at the left. This is historically the first instance of a vision Our Lady to a private person on record. The vault has St Luke by the Cavalier in the middle, but the two side frescoes by him perished and were replaced by works by Domenico Corvi. SS Irenaeus and Cyprian are on the right, and SS Ignatius of Antioch and Theophilus of Antioch on the left.
The left hand vault, over the memorial to Pope Paul V, is also frescoed by Reni. The lunette has The Emperor Heraclius Defeats Shah Chosroes II on the right, and Narses Defeats Totila the Goth on the left. In the middle of the vault is God the Father, with St Francis to the left and St Dominic on the right.
The archivolts enclosing the pendentives of the dome are embellished with coffers containing gilded stucco angels playing musical instruments. Below each pendentive is an angel, by Buonvicino The pendentives feature frescoes by the Cavalier d'Arpino, depicting four prophets each with an angel and holding a scroll with an epigraph. Anticlockwise from the entrance, they are: Daniel (Abscissus est lapis de monte sine manibus, et factus est mons magnus -"A rock was cut from the mountain without hands, and it became a great mountain"), Jeremiah (Femina circumdabit virum -"The woman will enclose the man"), Isaiah (Ecce virgo concipiet filium -"Behold, the virgin will conceive a son") and Ezekiel (Dominus Deus Israel ingressus est per eam -"The Lord God of Israel has entered by 'her' [actually the door of the temple]").
The dome sits on an entablature with a dedicatory inscription on its frieze. The fresco is by Ludovico Cardi Il Cigoli, and depicts Our Lady with the Apostles and Angels. In the lantern is God the Father, also by Cardi.
Traditionally, during the Mass here on the 5 August (the Dedication of the Basilica) white rose petals were dropped from the lantern of the dome in memory of the foundation legend involving snow. In recent years, these have been replaced with dahlia petals. They are smaller and fall straight down, while rose petals can drift onto the monuments and cause a nuisance.
The next external chapel on the right is a complete contrast in style. The project was begun by Cardinal Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora when he was archpriest of the basilica in 1556, but there was a hiatus before construction could start to a design by Michelangelo in 1564. Unfortunately, Guido died in that year and the project was taken up by his brother Cardinal Alessandro Sforza. The first architect was Tiberio Calcagni, but completion was by Giacomo della Porta in 1573. Fuga altered the entrance in his 18th century restoration, but left the interior alone.
Layout and fabric
The plan is based on a reversed Latin cross. There is a shallow entrance bay, then a square crossing and finally a rectangular sanctuary which is slightly shallower than a square. The crossing has a shallow cupola integrated with its pendentives, and this springs from four diagonal posts at the crossing corners themselves supported by four Corinthian columns on high plinths. To each side is a segmental apse containing a tomb of one of the two founding cardinals, with a semi-dome or conch which rises higher than the pendentive archivolt of the crossing cupola. This conch springs from another pair of columns, set back diagonally from the crossing ones. The posts above the columns are continued around the entire interior as an entablature with a dentillate cornice. The entrance bay and the sanctuary are barrel-vaulted, and the latter has a large trapezoidal window above the cornice with a curved top.
The decoration is very cool and serene, being almost all in white except for the tombs and the altar wall. Further, there is no applied stucco decoration or relief carving, leaving a completely smooth, blank stucco surface in the cupola. The columns and other architectural elements are in travertine limestone.
The altar aedicule in itself is a straightforward design, involving a pair of Corinthinan columns in green brecciated marble supporting an entablature and segmental pediment. The entablature frieze and tympanum of the pediment are also in green marble. The altarpiece is The Ascension of Our Lady by Girolamo Siciolante da Sermoneta. The aedicule is flanked by four windows, two square ones over two rectangular ones, and these windows have splayed frames facing the altar in order to maximise the natural light falling onto it.
A pair of angels sits on the pediment, and above these is a painted panel flanked by a pair of caryatids and topped by a broken triangular pediment into which a dedicatory epigraph on an oval tablet is inserted. This pediment also has a pair of angels reclining on it. The painting, in oils, is of The Coronation of Our Lady and is by Cesare Nebbia. The frieze of the interior entablature behind the top pediment has vine-scroll decoration (elsewhere it is blank).
The lunette above the entablature has a large trapezoidal window, flanked by frescoes of two prophets accompanied by angels and putti. These are by Nebbia. A third pair of stucco angels is over the window, supporting a second dedicatory tablet.
The memorials of the two cardinal brothers are a matching pair. Each occupies one of the side apses, which has a pair of Composite columns flanking the monument. Above these, the conch has two wide undecorated ribs, and in the centre another trapezoidal window with a winged putto's head over it.
One description suffices for both monuments, which are thought to be by Della Porta who used polychrome marbles. The frontal has an early Baroque hint in its black marble tablet with incurved sides, framed with pink marble and flanked by a pair of plinths with heraldry in relief. These support a pair of yellow marble Corinthian columns, themselves supporting an entablature with a yellow marble frieze and dentillation on its cornice. There is a triangular pediment on which two angels with trumpets sit, and a putto with a cross is at the apex.
In between the columns is a black marble sarcophagus with a winged putto's head on it. Above this is a white marble molded frame containing an arrangement like a little aedicule. This has a second frame in green marble on three sides, but topped by a broken segmental pediment in white marble with a winged putto's head in its break. This pediment is on a pair of triglyphs, and shelters an oval tondo containing a portrait of the deceased which is itself over a black marble epitaph tablet.
Finally, a pair of etiolated caryatids flanks the columns.
Altar of St Francis of Assisi
In the left hand side aisle there follows an altar dedicated to St Francis. It is in the same style as the other side aisle altars installed by Fuga, with an elliptical altarpiece supported by two angels by Bracci. The altarpiece here is The Ecstasy of St Francis by Placido Costanzi.
Statue of Our Lady of Peace
The large statue of the Madonna and Child, with the title of Regina Pacis ("Queen of Peace") is by Guido Galli 1918. It was commissioned by Pope Benedict XV in response to the First World War, and the pope also inserted the title into the Litany of Loreto.
Altar of Pope St Leo the Great
The next external chapel is dedicated to St Catherine of Alexandria. It was designed for the Cesi family by Guidetto Guidetti in about 1550, although it is thought that Martino Longhi the Elder was also involved. The family had a strong interest in the church of Santa Caterina dei Funari, hence the dedication. Their crest of a tree over stylised mountains features in the heraldry here.
The chapel later passed to the Massimo family, and their heraldry also features.
Layout and fabric
The chapel has an overall rectangular plan, of four bays. The first three bays form the nave, while the fourth bay is a shallow rectangular sanctuary flanked by a pair of tiny walled-off sacristies.
The nave has a pair of limestone Corinthian pilasters on each wall, and a double pilaster in the same style folded into the four corners. The side wall pilasters stand on a blank dado with stone skirting and cornice, but the end wall pilasters stand on very high stone plinths. These pilasters support an entablature with a blank frieze and dentillate cornice, which is slightly recessed between each pair of pilasters. In between the pilaster capitals is a sub-frieze embellished with reliefs of swags and ribbons.
The undecorated ceiling vault springs from this, in four sectors meeting at an elongated octagonal oculus. There is a lantern, with eight little round-headed windows. Each sector has a lunette containing a window frame, but now only the right hand side one has an actual window (the others were blocked by Fuga in the 18th century).
The entrance is under an archway fitted into the pair of pilasters on this wall, with a molded archivolt springing from Doric imposts. In its tympanum is the heraldry in relief of Cardinal Federico Cesi, with a separate identifying tablet. Flanking the present entrance are two former doorways blocked up perhaps by Fuga, and over these are two similarly designed marble tablets commemorating the foundation of the chapel and its restoration in 1827. This restoration and these tablets were commissioned by Cardinal Francesco Saverio Massimo, hence his family's shield is displayed above them.
Cardinals Federico and Paolo Emilio Cesi, who were brothers, are buried here and have matching memorials in the side walls by Guglielmo Della Porta (although there seems to be some doubt about the attribution).
Paolo died first, in 1537, and his monument is to the left. It is inserted into a shallow arched niche, and has a pair of Corinthian columns in pavonazzetto marble supporting a triangular pediment. The frieze of the entablature, the pediment tympanum and the background revetting are all in a white-veined black marble. On top of the pediment a pair of putti hold the cardinal's heraldry, and a winged putto's head with swags is below the entablature. There is a black marble sarcophagus on a plinth bearing the epitaph, and on this is a reclining effigy of the cardinal (also in black marble), propped up on his elbow. This pose is derived from ancient Etruscan tomb effigies.
His brother died in 1565. His memorial is almost identical, but the pose of his effigy is less alert. Also, the black and white marble is used for the columns.
Side wall paintings
The side walls have four large paintings. Anticlockwise from the entrance, they are: St Catherine Debates with the Philosophers of Alexandria by Louis Cousin, Il Gentile (the Italians also call him Luigi Primo); St Catherine Breaks Her Wheel by Giovanni Angelo Canini; The Mystical Marriage of St Catherine by Carlo Cesi and The Apotheosis of St Catherine by the same.
End wall paintings
The little sacristies have a pair of entrance doors flanking the sanctuary. Over these are two paintings each. The larger ones depict St Peter (to the left) and St Paul, and are by Giovanni Battista Ricci. The smaller ones above are by Girolamo Siciolante, and feature St John the Evangelist (to the left) and St Matthew.
The spandrels of the triumphal arch feature a Prophet and a Sibyl by Siciolante, obviously influenced by Michelangelo. The window embrasure above the triumphal arch feature two angels also by him -the ceiling vault is otherwise undecorated.
The little sanctuary has a triumphal arch almost matching that of the entrance (the archivolt is slightly higher, and the keystone touches the entablature). The barrel vault behind has frescoes of angels with the Holy Spirit.
The altar is approached by two marble steps. The aedicule has a pair of verde antico Corinthian columns supporting a triangular pediment. This has modillions, and the tympanum and frieze are in the same marble. The altarpiece is topped by a relief panel with a central cabochon again in the same stone, flanked by swags and ribbons.
The altarpiece shows The Martyrdom of St Catherine, which is a masterpiece by Siciolante.
Monuments in near end of left hand aisle
The bottom end of the left hand aisle, which begins with the blocked Holy Door, contains several interesting funerary monuments. The description begins with the entrance to the Cappella Cesi, and works towards the Holy Door.
The next side wall niche contains a neo-Classical memorial to Antonio Maria Traversi 1842. He was the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople (a very odd dignity that no longer exists) at the court of Pope Gregory XVI -but he was never a cardinal. He was extremely erudite in the arts and the sciences of the time, and the pope commissioned the memorial. As well as a bust, it has a tablet showing an allegorical figure of Religion between instruments associated especially with physics and astronomy (he excelled in the former).
The next memorial is to Cardinal Mariano Pier Benedetti 1653, a good example of polychrome marble Baroque. White, black, yellow and pavonazzetto marbles are used. A pair of Ionic columns in a pinkish marble supports a segmental pediment with a broken cornice. The portrait bust has a white marble head set on a porphyry torso, in imitation of an ancient fashion.
Then comes a spectacular monument to Cardinal Agostino Favoriti, 1685 by Filippo Carcani from a design by Ludovico Gimignani. The cardinal is shown sitting at a desk with a drape partly concealing his heraldry in grey marble, in front of a large triangle in grey Siena marble. The desk is on a plinth in verde antico, and this is in turn on a concave plinth in red jasper flanked by a pair of pedestals. On the latter are large allegorical figures of Religion and Fortitude (with the column). A putto with a book is also in attendance. The plinths have reliefs of musical instruments which are worth examining.
The bottom of the aisle is a little enclosed space formed by the old blocking wall to the left of the basilica's main entrance, which used to support a campanile.
The large polychrome marble and alabaster monument to Cardinal Francisco de Toledo Herrera 1596 is very impressive. He was a Spanish Jesuit theologian, one of the most important and influential scholars in Rome at the time. His specialties were the philosophy of Aristotle, the theology of St Thomas Aquinas (at a time when Aquinas was not as influential as he was going to become) and biblical exegesis. He was instrumental in the revision of the Latin Vulgate which led to the Clementine edition. The bust of the monument has a porphyry or red marble torso as well.
Next to the Holy Door is a monument to Fabio Sergardi, which is undated but thought to be about 1750. It is an inlaid marble slab with his heraldry in black marble relief, flanked by a pair of Ionic pilasters supporting a little triangular pediment. His epitaph mentions that he was from Siena.
Above the Holy Door and the monument just mentioned is a 15th century double-decker monument which used to be at the other end of the aisle before being moved here probably by Fuga. It commemorates the French brothers Cardinal Philippe de Lévis 1475, and Archbishop Eustache de Lévis 1485. They had been bishops in succession of the see of Arles.
The monument has four storeys. Firstly there is the epitaph of Eustache, flanked by two copies of the de Lévis shield. Then comes the recumbent effigy of Eustache, flanked by plinths having little statues in niches. The one on the left is St Catherine of Alexandria, that on the right is fairly obviously St Eustace. The effigy itself has an epigraph added, explaining that the monument is to two brother bishops. Above a dividing cornice is the effigy of Philippe, and finally his epitaph below another shield and a sheltering archivolt. It is known that the shield replaced a lost mosaic of Our Lady. Philippe and his epitaph is flanked by four stacked plinths containing little statues of allegorical figures of Prudence, Justice, Temperance and Fortitude. The archivolt is embellished with winged putto's heads, and has coffering on its intrados.
The identity of the sculptor is unknown, although several have been suggested. Andrea Bregno seems to be the most popular, but making a judgment on stylistic evidence only is never conclusive.
The de Lévis memorial is flanked by a a pair of matching polychrome marble wall monuments to Cardinals Pier Francesco Ferrero 1566 and his nephew Guido Luca Ferrero 1585. Black marble epitaphs framed in yellow Siena marble are topped by circular tondi containing the busts of the deceased. These busts imitate the Benedetti and Toledo ones just mentioned, in having porphyry torsos.
The new museum of the basilica was opened by Pope St John Paul II in 2001, and is located underground. You access it via the shop (Chapel of St Michael) and the courtyard, from which a set of steps lead down to under the baptistry.
The collections are mostly of liturgical items, including some very interesting reliquaries and vestments. There are also musical scores, manuscripts and pictures. Two important works that used to be in the sacristy of the Cappella Paolina have been moved to here. One is by Domenico Beccafumi, The Madonna and Child with SS Catherine and Anthony, and the other is The Way to Calvary by Antonio Bazzi, Il Sodoma.
The museum also includes the Area Archaeologica, involving the excavated remains of the ancient edifice under the basilica. This includes a collection of tiles from the roof, made during a mid 20th century restoration when it was realised that some of them are very old.
The basilica is open daily from 07:00 to 19:00, although the custodians might start shepherding you out fifteen minutes beforehand.
The Museum opens from 09:30 to 18:30. Included in the Museum ticket is a guided tour that will take you to the Loggia with its mosaics, the Sala dei Papi and the confessio of the Cappella Sistina with its crib figures. You will not get to visit these otherwise.
The basilica now has an online form for applications from pilgrimage groups to visit and celebrate Mass in the basilica. The pdf file is here.
Mass is celebrated, usually in the Cappella Paolina (Diocesan web-page, June 2018):
Weekdays 7:00, 8:00, 9:00, 10:00, 11:00, 12:00, 18:00.
Sundays 7:00, 8:00, 9:00, 10:00 (solemn high Mass in Latin), 11:30, 12:15, 18:00.
Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament takes place from 9:00 to 16:30, Monday to Friday.
Confessions can be made from 7:00 to 12:00, and 15:30 to 19:00. A collegio dei elemosinieri of Dominicans has the responsibility for hearing them. The friars speak several different languages, and the basilica is one of the most important locations in Rome for both locals and pilgrims wishing to approach the Sacrament of Penance.
Vespers is celebrated in choir on weekdays at 16:15, and Sundays at 17:00.
The church's dedication is celebrated in the general calendar of the Catholic church with an optional memoria on 5 August.
The title of the celebration is now given as the “Dedication of the Basilica of St Mary Major”. However, before 1970 the title was “Dedication of the Church of Our Lady of the Snow” in acknowledgement of the fictional foundation legend. Recommendations to change the name of the feast had been made as far back as the 18th century, but the change was delayed owing to a wish to respect the dignity of other churches worldwide with an official dedication to Santa Maria ad Nives.
Traditionally, on this day white rose petals were dropped from the dome of the Cappella Paolina during the Mass. In recent years, these have been replaced with dahlia petals.
Virtual Tour of the Basilica and Loggia (on the basilica's website)
Annas Rome Guide (superb -in Danish)
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