The 19th century, from 1801 to 1900, saw the continued French occupation of Rome, lasting until 1814. In 1848 and 1849, there was more upheaval when the Roman Republic was founded by Mazzini and Garibaldi.

The biggest change of this century came in 1870, when Italian troops captured Rome. The city was made the capital of a united Italy, and the Pope went into a more or less self-imposed captivity in the Vatican.


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