The 12th century, from 1101 to 1200, saw the establishment of a new Roman Republic. In 1143, Giordano Frangipani led the revolt which resurrected the Senate. Also, Arnoldo da Brescia established the Commune of Rome, which was crushed in 1155.

In 1188, Pope Clement III recognized the temporal government, making the senators papal vassals. The internal power struggle in the Senate meant that the Republic was hardly more stable than Rome had been in the preceding centuries.


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